Most field inspections are performed using a Yoke, as shown at the right. As shown in Figure 2(a), an electric coil is wrapped around a central core, and when the current is applied, a magnetic field is generated that extends from the core down through the articulated legs into the part. This is known as longitudinal magnetization because the magnetic flux lines run from one leg to the other.
When the legs are placed on a ferromagnetic part and the yoke is energized, a magnetic field is introduced into the part as shown in (b). Because the flux lines do run from one leg to the other, discontinuities oriented perpendicular to a line drawn between the legs can be found. To ensure no indications are missed, the yoke is used once in the position shown then used again with the yoke turned 90o so no indications are missed. Because all of the electric current is contained in the yoke and only the magnetic field penetrates the part, this type of application is known as indirect induction.
Industrial radiography involves exposing a test object to penetrating radiation so that the radiation passes through the object being inspected and a recording medium placed against the opposite side of that object. For thinner or less dense materials such as aluminum, electrically generated x-radiation (X-rays) are commonly used, and for thicker or denser materials, gamma radiation is generally used.
Gamma radiation is given off by decaying radioactive materials, with the two most commonly used sources of gamma radiation being Iridium-192 (Ir-192) and Cobalt-60 (Co-60). IR-192 is generally used for steel up to 2-1/2 - 3 inches, depending on the Curie strength of the source, and Co-60 is usually used for thicker materials due to its greater penetrating ability.
The recording media can be industrial x-ray film or one of several types of digital radiation detectors. With both, the radiation passing through the test object exposes the media, causing an end effect of having darker areas where more radiation has passed through the part and lighter areas where less radiation has penetrated. If there is a void or defect in the part, more radiation passes through, causing a darker image on the film or detector, as shown in Figure 8.
Film radiography uses a film made up of a thin transparent plastic coated with a fine layer of silver bromide on one or both sides of the plastic. When exposed to radiation these crystals undergo a reaction that allows them, when developed, to convert to black metallic silver. That silver is then "fixed" to the plastic during the developing process, and when dried, becomes a finished radiographic film.
To be a usable film, the area of interest (weld area, etc.) on the film must be within a certain density (darkness) range and must show enough contrast and sensitivity so that discontinuities of interest can be seen. These items are a function of the strength of the radiation, the distance of the source from the film and the thickness of the part being inspected. If any of these parameters are not met, another exposure ("shot") must be made for that area of the part.
Ultrasonic testing uses the same principle as is used in naval SONAR and fish finders. Ultra-high frequency sound is introduced into the part being inspected and if the sound hits a material with a different acoustic impedance (density and acoustic velocity), some of the sound will reflect back to the sending unit and can be presented on a visual display. By knowing the speed of the sound through the part (the acoustic velocity) and the time required for the sound to return to the sending unit, the distance to the reflector (the indication with the different acoustic impedance) can be determined. The most common sound frequencies used in UT are between 1.0 and 10.0 MHz, which are too high to be heard and do not travel through air. The lower frequencies have greater penetrating power but less sensitivity (the ability to "see" small indications), while the higher frequencies don't penetrate as deeply but can detect smaller indications.
The two most commonly used types of sound waves used in industrial inspections are the compression (longitudinal) wave and the shear (transverse) wave, as shown in Figure 10. Compression waves cause the atoms in a part to vibrate back and forth parallel to the sound direction and shear waves cause the atoms to vibrate perpendicularly (from side to side) to the direction of the sound. Shear waves travel at approximately half the speed of longitudinal waves.
Sound is introduced into the part using an ultrasonic transducer ("probe") that converts electrical impulses from the UT machine into sound waves, then converts returning sound back into electric impulses that can be displayed as a visual representation on a digital or LCD screen (on older machines, a CRT screen). If the machine is properly calibrated, the operator can determine the distance from the transducer to the reflector, and in many cases, an experienced operator can determine the type of discontinuity (like slag, porosity or cracks in a weld) that caused the reflector. Because ultrasound will not travel through air (the atoms in air molecules are too far apart to transmit ultrasound), a liquid or gel called "couplant" is used between the face of the transducer and the surface of the part to allow the sound to be transmitted into the part.
Angle beam inspection uses the same type of transducer but it is mounted on an angled wedge (also called a "probe") that is designed to transmit the sound beam into the part at a known angle. The most commonly used inspection angles are 45o, 60o and 70o, with the angle being calculated up from a line drawn through the thickness of the part (not the part surface). A 60o probe is shown in Figure 12. If the frequency and wedge angle is not specified by the governing code or specification, it is up to the operator to select a combination that will adequately inspect the part being tested.
In angle beam inspections, the transducer and wedge combination (also referred to as a "probe") is moved back and forth towards the weld so that the sound beam passes through the full volume of the weld. As with straight beam inspections, reflectors aligned more or less perpendicular to the sound beam will send sound back to the transducer and are displayed on the screen.
Time of Flight Diffraction
Eddy Current Testing
Eddy Current Testing uses the fact that when a an alternating current coil induces an electromagnetic field into a conductive test piece, a small current is created around the magnetic flux field, much like a magnetic field is generated around an electric current. The flow pattern of this secondary current, called an "eddy" current, will be affected when it encounters a discontinuity in the test piece, and the change in the eddy current density can be detected and used to characterize the discontinuity causing that change. A simplified schematic of eddy currents generated by an alternating current coil ("probe") is shown in Figure 14-a. By varying the type of coil, this test method can be applied to flat surfaces or tubular products. This technique works best on smooth surfaces and has limited penetration, usually less than ¼".
Encircling coils (Figure 14-b) are used to test tubular and bar-shaped products. The tube or bar can be fed through the coil at a relatively high speed, allowing the full cross-section of the test object to be interrogated. However, due to the direction of the flux lines, circumferentially oriented discontinuities may not be detected with this application.
Alternating Current Field Measurement
Remote Field Testing
Bubble Leak Testing
Pressure Change Testing
Halogen Diode Testing
Mass Spectrometer Testing
Magnetic Flux Leakage detects anomalies in normal flux patterns created by discontinuities in ferrous material saturated by a magnetic field. This technique can be used for piping and tubing inspection, tank floor inspection and other applications. In tubular applications, the inspection head contain is made up of drive and sensor coils and a position transducer that are connected by cable back to the power source and signal processing computer. This head is placed around the pipe or tube to be inspected and the drive coil is energized, creating a magnetic field in the part. As the head travels along the length of the part, variations in the wall thickness due to corrosion, erosion, pitting etc., will cause a change in the magnetic flux density can be picked up by the sensor and sent back to the computer. The location of this signal is sent by the position transducer so that the area detected can be marked for further evaluation. This technique can be done without removing the insulation, resulting in a fast, economic way to inspect long runs of pipe or tubing.
Tank floor inspection applies the same principle, but uses a series of magnetic field generators ("bridges") and sensors (as shown in Figure 16) located side by side across the front of a vacuum sweeper-like machine. The bridges generate a magnetic field that saturates the tank floor, and any reduction in thickness or loss of material due to pitting or corrosion will cause the field to "leak" upwards out of the floor material where it can be picked up by the sensors. On very basic machines, each sensor will be connected to an audio and/or visual display that lets the operator know there is an indication; more advanced machines can have both visual displays and recording capability so that the results can be stored, analyzed and compared to earlier results to monitor discontinuity growth.
Vibration analysis refers to the process of monitoring the vibration signatures specific to a piece of rotating machinery and analyzing that information to determine the condition of that equipment. Three types of sensors are commonly used: displacement sensors, velocity sensors and accelerometers.
Displacement sensors uses eddy current to detect vertical and/or horizontal motion (depending on whether one or two sensors are used) and are well suited to detect shaft motion and changes in clearance tolerances.
Basic velocity sensors use a spring-mounted magnet that moves through a coil of wire, with the outer case of the sensor attached to the part being inspected. The coil of wire moves through the magnetic field, generating an electrical signal that is sent back to a receiver and recorded for analysis. Newer model vibration sensors use time-of-flight technology and improved analysis software. Velocity sensors are commonly used in handheld sensors.
Basic accelerometers use a piezoelectric crystal (that converts sound waves to electrical impulses and back) attached to a mass that vibrates due to the motion of the part to which the sensor casing is attached. As the mass and crystal vibrate, a low voltage current is generated which is passed through a pre-amplifier and sent to the recording device. Accelerometers are very effective for detecting the high frequencies created by high speed turbine blades, gears and ball and roller bearings that travel at much greater speeds than the shafts to which they are attached.