In the area of magnetic particle inspection, little has changed in the past 30 years. Improvements have been made in the use of solid-state electronics for the control circuit, compared to the old contactors. Some PC controls have been added to magnetic particle machines to allow for recall of magnetic particle techniques for specific parts for repetitive work so that the same parameters are always used. A few years ago, a revision to the ketos ring was made, and the AS-5282 (SAE 2015b) ring was developed to replace the previously used ketos ring. Verification of magnetic particle techniques was initiated with the use of gauss meters and QQIs (quantitative quality indicators), which have very shallow indications and are attached to the part under test. The vehicle, or carrier, has remained the same from the very beginning of the development of the test method. Deodorized kerosene has been the main material used since the inception of the magnetic particle method. Eventually, the use of water with an anti-rust and algaecide additive was also introduced. Recently, however, there has been a change in the world of magnetic particle testing. A carrier recycling unit is now available to clean the carrier and allow it to be reused. An example of such a unit is shown in Figure 1. The cost to continually purchase drums of carrier, and then to have the spent carrier waste hauled, is very expensive. The cost of oil-based products has also been continually rising. For users, recycling the carrier can represent a tremendous cost savings. In addition, the spent drums of oil have to be stored before they are shipped out for disposal. This can take up additional space on the shop floor. The disposal of spent oil is expensive and must meet US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules under federal regulations for solid waste (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act [RCRA] 40 CFR Parts 239 to 259) (US EPA 2019).
SAE, 2015a, AMS2641C: Vehicle, Magnetic Particle Inspec-tion Petroleum Base, SAE International, Warrendale, PA.
SAE, 2015b, AS5282A: Tool Steel Ring Standard for Magnetic Particle Inspection, SAE International, Warrendale, PA.
ASTM, 2018, ASTM D93-18: Standard Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
ASTM, 2019, ASTM D445: Standard Test Method for Kine-matic Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (and Calculation of Dynamic Viscosity), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
ASTM, 2017a, ASTM D1500-12 (2017): Standard Test Method for ASTM Color of Petroleum Products (ASTM Color Scale), ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
ASTM, 2017b, ASTM D3242-11 (2017): Standard Test Method for Acidity in Aviation Turbine Fuel, ASTM Interna-tional, West Conshohocken, PA.
US EPA, 2019, “Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Regulations,” available at https://www.epa.gov/ rcra/resource-conservation-and-recovery-act-rcra-regula tions. Accessed on 18 September 2019.
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