Broken rails are a major concern in the safety and operation of railroads. Ultrasonic inspection operated by rolling search units (RSUs) is the most common rail inspection technique aimed at detecting internal rail discontinuities before they grow to critical sizes. However, RSUs using ultrasonic inspection techniques currently operate between 20 and 45 mph (30 to 70 km/h) and require carefully scheduled inspections that may interfere with revenue traffic. This paper proposes a radically new noncontact ultrasonic inspection approach that exploits the rolling train wheels as the acoustic excitation of the rail. The potential for high-speed inspection would enable a concept of “smart trains” that perform the inspection during normal operation, enabling redundant inspections from multiple passes, and increasing the ultimate reliability of discontinuity detection. An initial proof-of-concept field test, implemented in a noncontact manner by air-coupled ultrasonic sensors, was performed at the Transportation Technology Center (TTC) near Pueblo, Colorado, at speeds of up to 80 mph (128 km/h).
Anon, F., 1990, “Rail-Flaw Detection. A Science that Works,” Railway Track and Structures, Vol. 86, No. 5, pp. 30–32.
Carter, G.C., 1987, “Coherence and Time Delay Estimation,” Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 75, No. 2, pp. 236–255.
Coccia, S., I. Bartoli, A. Marzani, F. Lanza di Scalea, S. Salamone, and M. Fateh, 2011, “Numerical and Experimental Study of Guided Waves for Detection of Rail Head Defects,” NDT&E International, Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 93–100.
Lanza di Scalea, F., 2007, “Ultrasonic Testing Applications in the Railroad Industry,” Chapter 15, Part 2: Special Applications of Ultrasonic Testing, in Nondestructive Testing Handbook, 3rd ed.: Vol. 7: Ultrasonic Testing, American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Columbus, Ohio, pp. 535–540.
Lanza di Scalea, F., X. Zhu, M. Capriotti, A.Y. Liang, S. Mariani, and S. Sternini, 2018a, “Passive Extraction of Dynamic Transfer Function from Arbitrary Ambient Excitations: Application to High-speed Rail Inspection from Wheel-Generated Waves,” ASME Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, Diagnostics and Prognostics of Engineering Systems, Vol. 1, No.1, pp. 011005–011017.
Lanza di Scalea, F., S. Simone, and A.Y. Liang, 2018b, “Robust Passive Reconstruction of Dynamic Transfer Function in Dual-Output Systems,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 143, No. 2, pp. 1019–1028.
Mariani, S., and Lanza di Scalea, F., 2017, “Predictions of Defect Detection Performance of Air-Coupled Ultrasonic Rail Inspection System,” Structural Health Monitoring International Journal, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp. 684–705.
Michaels, Jennifer E., and Thomas E. Michaels, 2005, “Detection of Structural Damage from the Local Temporal Coherence of Diffuse Ultrasonic Signals,” IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, Vol. 52, No. 10, pp. 1769–1782.
Ph Papaelias, M., C. Roberts, and C. L. Davis, 2008, “A Review on Nondestructive Evaluation of Rails: State-of-the-Art and Future Development,” Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit, Vol. 222, No. 4, pp. 367–384.
Roth, Peter R., 1971, “Effective Measurements Using Digital Signal Analysis,” IEEE Spectrum, Vol. 8, No. 4, pp. 62–70.
Sabra, Karim G., Philippe Roux, and W. A. Kuperman, 2005a, “Arrival-Time Structure of the Time-Averaged Ambient Noise Cross-Correlation Function in an Oceanic Waveguide,” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 117, No. 1, pp. 164–174.
Sabra, Karim G., P. Gerstoft, P. Roux, and W.A. Kuperman, 2005b, “Extracting Time‐Domain Green’s Function Estimates from Ambient Seismic Noise,” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 32, No. 3, doi:10.1029/2004GL021862.
Thompson, D.J., 1993, “Wheel-Rail Noise Generation, Part I: Introduction and Interaction Model,” Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 161, No. 3, pp. 387–400.
Thompson, D.J., and C.J.C. Jones, 2000, “A Review of the Modelling of Wheel/Rail Noise Generation,” Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 231, No. 3, pp. 519–536.
Welch, Peter, 1967, “The Use of Fast Fourier Transform for the Estimation of Power Spectra: A Method Based on Time Averaging over Short, Modified Periodograms,” IEEE Transactions on Audio and Electroacoustics, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 70–73.
122 Page Views
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares