In this work, the ultrasound attenuation in nodular cast iron was evaluated by using three different methodologies, here designated as the A, B, and C techniques. Six machined cast iron samples were tested, using two broadband transducers of 8 and 20 MHz in the pulse-echo configuration by immersion. The sample micrographic images were analyzed for microstructure characterization and graphite nodules size determination. Two experimental studies were accomplished: (1) evaluation of the performance of the A, B, and C techniques, and (2) determination of the reflection coefficient for different frequency values and its influence in the attenuation results. It was found that the attenuation exhibits a power law frequency dependence, with a very high coefficient of determination, which can be considered as a quasi-rayleigh regime. Although the present problem deals with nodular cast iron, it can be generalized to other scattering media.
Arguelles, A.P., and J.A. Turner, 2017, “Ultrasonic Attenuation of Polycrystalline Materials with a Distribution of Grain Sizes,” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 141, No. 6, pp. 4347–4353.
Bhatia, A.B., and R.A. Moore, 1959, “Scattering of High‐Frequency Sound Waves in Polycrystalline Materials,” The Journal of Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 16–23.
Cheng, T.-W., T.-S. Lui, and L.-H. Chen, 2012, “Microstructural Features and Erosion Wear Resistance of Friction Stir Surface Hardened Spheroidal Graphite Cast Iron,” Materials Transactions, Vol. 53, No. 1, pp. 167–172.
Garcin, T., J.H. Schmitt, and M. Militzer, 2016, “In-Situ Laser Ultrasonic Grain Size Measurement in Superalloy INCONEL 718,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 670, pp. 329–336.
Gonzalez-Valadez, M., R.S. Dwyer-Joyce, and R. Lewis, 2005, “Ultrasonic Reflection from Mixed Liquid-Solid Contacts and the Determination of Interface Stiffness,” Tribology and Interface Engineering Series, Vol. 48, pp. 313–320.
Klinman, R., and Stephenson, E.T., 1981, “Ultrasonic Prediction of Grain Size and Mechanical Properties in Plain Carbon Steel,” Materials Evaluation, Vol. 39, No. 12, pp. 1116–1120.
Kruger, S.E., J.M.A. Rebello, and J. Charlier, 2004, “Broadband Ultrasonic Backscattering Applied to Non-Destructive Characterization of Materials,” IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, Vol. 51, No. 7, pp. 832–838.
Kube, C.M., 2017, “Iterative Solution to Bulk Wave Propagation in Polycrystalline Materials,” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 141, No. 3, doi: 10.1121/1.4978008.
Liu, D., and J.A. Turner, 2008, “Influence of Spatial Correlation Function on Attenuation of Ultrasonic Waves in Two-Phase Materials,” The Journal of Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 123, No. 5, pp. 2570–2576.
Mak, D.K., 1991, “Comparison of Various Methods for the Measurement of Reflection Coefficient and Ultrasonic Attenuation,” British Journal of NDT, Vol. 33, No. 9, pp. 441–449
Man, C.-S., R. Paroni, Y. Xiang, and E.A. Kenik, 2006, “On the Geometric Autocorrelation Function of Polycrystalline Materials,” Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics, Vol. 190, Nos. 1–2, pp. 200–210.
Mason, W.P., and H.J. McSkimin, 1947, “Attenuation and Scattering of High Frequency Sound Waves in Metals and Glasses,” The Journal of Acoustical Society of America, Vol.19, No. 3, pp. 464–473.
Papadakis, E.P., 1965, “Revised Grain-Scattering Formulas and Tables,” The Journal of Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 703–710.
Prakash, P., V. Mytri, and P. Hiremath, 2011, “Digital Microstructure Analysis System for Testing and Quantifying the Ductile Cast Iron,” International Journal of Computer Applications, Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 22–27.
Rogers, P.H., and A.L. Van Buren, 1974, “An Exact Expression for the Lommel Diffraction Correction Integral,” The Journal of Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 55, No. 4, p. 724–728.
Schneider, C.A., W.S. Rasband, and K.W. Eliceiri, 2012, “NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 Years of Image Analysis,” Nature Methods, Vol. 9, No. 7, pp. 671–675.
Seki, H.S., A. Granato, and R. Truell, 1956, “Diffraction Effects in the Ultrasonic Field of a Piston Source and Their Importance in the Accurate Measurement of Attenuation,” The Journal of Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 230–238.
Stanke, F.E., and G.S. Kino, 1984, “A Unified Theory for Elastic Wave Propagation in Polycrystalline Materials,” The Journal of Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 75, No. 3, pp. 665–681.
Van Pamel, A., G. Sha, S.I. Rokhlin, and M.J.S. Lowe, 2017, “Finite-Element Modelling of Elastic Wave Propagation and Scattering within Heterogeneous Media,” Proceedings of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences, Vol. 473, No. 2197, doi:10.1098/rspa.2016.0738.
Yang, L., O.I. Lobkis, and S.I. Rokhlin, 2011, “Shape Effect of Elongated Grains on Ultrasonic Attenuation in Polycrystalline Materials,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 51, No. 6, pp. 697–708.
149 Page Views
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares