Article Periodicals » Materials Evaluation » Article
Inspection of Bend Discontinuities Based on the Comparison of the Frequency Responses of Ultrasonic Guided Waves in Small Diameter Tubes

Ultrasonic guided waves have been widely used to monitor straight tubes because of their applicability to full-volume inspection at long distances. However, the use of ultrasonic guided waves is limited when inspecting tubes with bends. Bends in tubes distort the propagation of guided waves and cause a reflection. Reflection signals from the bends and any discontinuities in the bend overlap each other, thereby hindering the inspection of bends. A technique for inspecting for discontinuities in bends is obviously needed. In this study, the sensitivity of guided waves to discontinuities at different bend locations is investigated through a numerical simulation technique. A technique for comparing frequency responses is proposed to inspect for discontinuities in bends. The frequency responses of the reflection signals of full bends and bends with discontinuities are obtained from the modal assurance criteria for different guided wave modes and inspection signals of different center frequencies. If two frequency responses are similar, then no discontinuities exist in the bend region. The technique is validated by numerical simulations and experimental results.

References

Abbasi, K., N.H. Motlagh, M.R. Neamatollahi, and Hidetoshi Hashizume, 2009, “Detection of Axial Crack in the Bend Region of a Pipe by High Frequency Electromagnetic Waves,” International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, Vol. 86, No. 11, pp. 764–768.

Demma, A., P. Cawley, and M.J.S. Lowe, 2001, “Mode Conversion of Longitudinal and Torsional Guided Modes Due to Pipe Bend,” Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation: Volume 20, ed. D.O. Thompson, D.E. Chimenti, and L. Poore, Ames, IA, 16–20 July 2000, AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 557, doi: 10.1063/1.1373756.

Demma, A., P. Cawley, and M.J.S. Lowe, 2002, “Guided Waves in Curved Pipes,” Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, ed. D.O. Thompson, D.E. Chimenti, L. Poore, C. Nessa, and S. Kallsen, Brunswick, ME, 29 July–3 August, AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 615, doi: 10.1063/1.1472794. 

Demma, A., P. Cawley, M. Lowe, and B. Pavlakovic, 2005, “The Effect of Bends on the Propagation of Guided Waves in Pipes,” Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Vol. 127, No. 3, pp. 328–335.

Ewins, D.J., 1984, Modal Testing: Theory and Practice, Research Studies Press Ltd., Taunton, Somerset, England.

Galvagni, A., 2013, “Pipeline Health Monitoring,” Dissertation, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Geng, H. Q., Y. M. Wang, W. L. Deng, L. Chen, and W. Ye, 2017, “Research on Reflection of L(0,1) Guided Wave from Pipe Elbow Based on Modal Assurance Criteria Calculation,” Scientia Sinica Technologica, Vol. 47, No. 12, pp. 1295–1303 (in Chinese).

Hayashi, T., K. Kawashima, Z. Sun, and J.L. Rose, 2003, “Analysis of Flexural Mode Focusing by a Semianalytical Finite Element Method,” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 113, No. 3, pp. 1241–1248.

Hayashi, T., K. Kawashima, Z. Sun, and J.L. Rose, 2005, “Guided Wave Propagation Mechanics Across a Pipe Elbow,” Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Vol. 127, No. 3, pp. 322–327.

Hayashi, T., W.-J. Song, and J.L. Rose, 2003, “Guided Wave Dispersion Curves for a Bar with an Arbitrary Cross-Section, a Rod and Rail Example,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 41, No. 3, pp. 175–183.

Light, G., H. Kwun, S.-Y. Kim, and R. Spinks, 2002, “Method and Apparatus for Short Term Inspection or Long Term Structural Health Monitoring,” US Patent No. 6396262 B2.

Long, C. S., and P.W. Loveday, 2014, “Prediction of Guided Wave Scat-tering by Defects in Rails Using Numerical Modelling,” 40th Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation: Incorporating the 10th International Conference on Barkhausen Noise and Micromagnetic Testing, ed. D.E. Chimenti, L.J. Bond, and D.O. Thompson, Baltimore, MD, 21–26 July 2013, AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1581, doi: 10.1063/1.4864826. 

Marzani, A., E. Viola, I. Bartoli, F. Lanza di Scalea, and P. Rizzo, 2008, “A Semi-Analytical Finite Element Formulation for Modeling Stress Wave Propagation in Axisymmetric Damped Waveguides,” Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 318, No. 3, pp. 488–505.

Miki, M., Y. Nagashima, M. Endou, K. Kodaira, M. Koike, and M. Odakura, 2010, “Evaluation for Defect Detection Over Bending Zone in Piping by Guided Wave,” Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation Volume 29, ed. D.O. Thompson and D.E. Chimenti, Kingston, RI, 26–31 July 2009, AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1211, doi: 10.1063/1.3362172.

Ni, J., S. Zhou, P. Zhang, and Y. Li, 2015. “Effect of Pipe Bend Configura-tion on Guided Waves-Based Defects Detection: An Experimental Study,” Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Vol. 138, No. 2, doi: 10.1115/1.4031547.

Pavlakovic, B., M. Lowe, D. Alleyne, and P. Cawley, 1997, “Disperse: A General Purpose Program for Creating Dispersion Curves,” Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 16, ed. D.O. Thompson and D.E. Chimenti, Springer, Boston, MA, doi: 10.1007/978-1-4615-5947-4_24.

Puthillath, P., 2010, “Ultrasonic Guided Wave Propagation across Wave-guide Transitions Applied to Bonded Joint Inspection,” Ph.D. dissertation, The Pennsylvania State University, etda.libraries.psu.edu/catalog/11152.

Qi, M., S. Zhou, J. Ni, and Y. Li, 2016, “Investigation on Ultrasonic Guided Waves Propagation in Elbow Pipe,” International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, Vols. 139–140, pp. 250–255.

Rose, J.L., J.J. Ditri, A. Pilarski, K. Rajana, and F. Carr, 1994, “A Guided Wave Inspection Technique for Nuclear Steam Generator Tubing,” NDT & E International, Vol. 27, No. 6, pp. 307–310.

Rudd, K. E., K.R. Leonard, J.P. Bingham, and M.K. Hinders, 2007, “Simula-tion of Guided Waves in Complex Piping Geometries Using the Elastody-namic Finite Integration Technique,” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 121, No. 3, pp. 1449–1458.

Sanderson, R.M., D.A. Hutchins, D.R. Billson, and P.J. Mudge, 2013, “The Investigation of Guided Wave Propagation around a Pipe Bend Using an Analytical Modeling Approach,” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 133, No. 3, pp. 1404–1414.

Verma, B., T.K. Mishra, K. Balasubramaniam, and P. Rajagopal, 2014, “Interaction of Low-Frequency Axisymmetric Ultrasonic Guided Waves with Bends in Pipes of Arbitrary Bend Angle and General Bend Radius,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 54, No. 3, pp. 801–808.

Yamamoto, T., T. Furukawa, and H. Nishino, 2014, “Efficient Defect Detections of Elbow Pipes Using Propagation Characteristics of Guided Waves,” 40th Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation: Incorporating the 10th International Conference on Barkhausen Noise and Micromagnetic Testing, ed. D.E. Chimenti, L.J. Bond, and D.O. Thompson, 21–26 July 2013, Baltimore, MD, AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1581, doi: 10.1063/1.4864844.

Zhu, L.X., 2014, “The Theoretical and Experimental Research on the Propagation Characteristics of Guided Waves in Bended Pipes,” Disserta-tion, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan, China (in Chinese).

Metrics
Usage Shares
Total Views
93 Page Views
Total Shares
0 Tweets
93
0 PDF Downloads
0
0 Facebook Shares
Total Usage
93