This paper further investigates the use of a 3D digital image correlation (DIC) setup, called the double-side DIC setup, which directly and simultaneously measures in-plane and out-of-plane strain and deflection. The double-side DIC setup differs from conventional 3D DIC setups in its orientation, as it is oriented at an angle to the test specimen. This allows multiple sides of a specimen to be viewed at the same time. Images taken by the system can be evaluated without special algorithms and without changing the standard 3D DIC algorithm. The double-side DIC setup’s measurement capability was compared to that of a conventional 3D DIC setup and strain gauges, and the setup’s inherent strain and displacement bias and noise was investigated using captured static images. The setup’s measurement capability was further demonstrated through the performance of multiple tensile tests of steel and aluminum specimens. Stiffness, yield strength, and Poisson’s ratio were evaluated using data from the setup. The system’s principles and experimental setup are described in detail, along with the results of tests performed to investigate the system.
ASTM, 2016, ASTM E8/E8M-16a: Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Badaloni, M., M. Rossi, G. Chiappini, P. Lava, and D. Debruyne, 2015, “Impact of Experimental Uncertainties on the Identification of Mechanical Material Properties Using DIC,” Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 55, No. 8, pp. 1411–1426.
Benzerga, A.A., J. Besson, and A. Pineau, 2004, “Anisotropic Ductile Fracture: Part I: Experiments,” Acta Materialia, Vol. 52, No. 15, pp. 4623–4638.
Bornert, M., F. Brémand, P. Doumalin, J.C. Dupré, M. Fazzini, M. Grédiac, F. Hild, S. Mistou, J. Molimard, J.-J. Orteu, L. Robert, Y. Surrel, P. Vacher, and B. Wattrisse, 2009, “Assessment of Digital Image Correlation Measure-ment Errors: Methodology and Results,” Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 353–370.
Butters, J.N., R. Jones, R., and C. Wykes, 1978, “Electronic Speckle Pattern interferometry,” Speckle Metrology, pp. 111–158.
Chen, X., N. Xu, L. Yang, and D. Xiang, 2012, “High Temperature Displacement and Strain Measurement Using a Monochromatic Light Illu-minated Stereo Digital Image Correlation System,” Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 23, No. 12.
Chen, X., L. Yang, N. Xu, X. Xie, B. Sia, and R. Xu, 2014, “Cluster Approach Based Multi-Camera Digital Image Correlation: Methodology and its Application in Large Area High Temperature Measurement,” Optics & Laser Technology, Vol. 57, pp. 318–326.
Davis, J.R., 2004, Tensile Testing, ASM International, Materials Park, OH.
Gabauer, W, 2000, “The Determination of Uncertainties of Poisson’s Ratio (from a Tension Test),” Voest-Alpine Stahl Linz GmbH: Linz, Austria, SM&T, Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165.
Gabauer, W., 2000, “The Determination of Uncertainties in Tensile Testing,” Manual of Codes of Practice for the Determination of Uncertainties in Mechanical Tests on Metallic Materials, Code of Practice No. 16, Standards Measurement & Testing Project No. SMT4-CT97-2165, Issue 1.
Gooch, D.J., 1986, Techniques for Multiaxial Creep Testing, Elsevier, London, UK.
Grytten, F., H. Daiyan, M. Polanco-Loria, and S. Dumoulin, 2009, “Use of Digital Image Correlation to Measure Large-Strain Tensile Properties of Ductile Thermoplastics,” Polymer Testing, Vol. 28, No. 6, pp. 653–660.
Hoffmann, H., and C. Vogl, 2003, “Determination of True Stress-Strain-Curves and Normal Anisotropy in Tensile Tests with Optical Strain Meas-urement,” CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 52, No. 1, pp. 217–220.
Hung, Y.Y., and H.P. Ho, 2005, “Shearography: An Optical Measurement Technique and Applications,” Materials Science and Engineering: R: Reports, Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 61–87.
Ke, X.D., H.W. Schreier, M.A. Sutton, and Y.Q. Wang, 2011, “Error Assessment in Stereo-Based Deformation Measurements,” Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 51, No. 4, pp. 423–441.
Li, J., X. Xie, G. Yang, B. Zhang, T. Siebert, and L. Yang, 2017, “Whole-Field Thickness Strain Measurement Using Multiple Camera Digital Image Correlation System,” Optics and Lasers in Engineering, Vol. 90, pp. 19–25.
Li, J., W. Xu, X. Xie, T. Siebert, and L. Yang, 2016, “Experimental Study of FLD0 for Aluminum Alloy Using Digital Image Correlation with Modified ISO Method,” International Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 107, No. 3, pp. 245–253.
Lodeiro, M. J., W.R. Broughton, and G.D. Sims, 1999, “Understanding Limitations of Through-Thickness Test Methods,” Plastics, Rubber and Composites, Vol. 28, No. 9, pp. 416–424.
Motra, H.B., J. Hildebrand, and A. Dimmig-Osburg, 2014, “Assessment of Strain Measurement Techniques to Characterise Mechanical Properties of Structural Steel,” Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal, Vol. 17, No. 4, pp. 260–269.
Olsson, R., 2011, “A Survey of Test Methods for Multiaxial and Out-of-Plane Strength of Composite Laminates,” Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 71, No. 6, pp. 773–783.
Podgornik, B., B. Žužek, M. Sedlaček, V. Kevorkijan, and B. Hostej, 2016, “Analysis of Factors Influencing Measurement Accuracy of Al Alloy Tensile Test Results,” Measurement Science Review, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 1–7.
Reu, P.L., W. Sweatt, T. Miller, and D. Fleming, 2015, “Camera System Resolution and its Influence on Digital Image Correlation,” Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 55, No. 1, pp. 9–25.
Robert, L., F. Nazaret, T. Cutard, and J.J. Orteu, 2007, “Use of 3-D Digital Image Correlation to Characterize the Mechanical Behavior of a Fiber Reinforced Refractory Castable,” Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 47, No. 6, pp. 761–773.
Rossi, M., G.B. Broggiato, and S. Papalini, 2008, “Application of Digital Image Correlation to the Study of Planar Anisotropy of Sheet Metals at Large Strains,” Meccanica, Vol. 43, No. 2, pp. 185–199.
Rossi, M., and F. Pierron, 2012, “On the Use of Simulated Experiments in Designing Tests for Material Characterization from Full-Field Measure-ments,” International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 420–435.
Steinchen, W., and L. Yang, 2003, Digital Shearography: Theory and Appli-cation of Digital Speckle Pattern Shearing Interferometry, SPIE Press Mono-graph, Bellingham, WA.
Sutton, M.A., 2008, “Digital Image Correlation for Shape and Deformation Measurements,” Springer Handbook of Experimental Solid Mechanics, Springer, Boston, MA, pp. 565–600.
Tay, C.J., C. Quan, Y.H. Huang, and Y. Fu, 2005, “Digital Image Correla-tion for Whole Field Out-of-Plane Displacement Measurement Using a Single Camera,” Optics Communications, Vol. 251, No. 1, pp. 23–36.
Wang, Y.H., J.H. Jiang, C. Wanintrudal, C. Du, D. Zhou, L.M. Smith, and L.X. Yang, 2010, “Whole Field Sheet Metal Tensile Test Using Digital Image Correlation,” Experimental Techniques, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 54–59.
Wang, Y.Q., X.W. Liao, Y.Y. Zhang, and Y.J. Shi, 2015, “Experimental Study on the Through-Thickness Properties of Structural Steel Thick Plate and Its Heat-Affected Zone at Low Temperatures,” Journal of Zhejiang University Science A, Vol. 16, No. 3, pp. 217–228.
Wykes, C., 1982, “Use of Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) in the Measurement of Static and Dynamic Surface Displacements,” Optical Engineering, Vol. 21, No. 3.
Xie, X., J. Li, B. Sia, T. Bai, T. Siebert, and L. Yang, 2016, “An Experimental Validation of Volume Conservation Assumption for Aluminum Alloy Sheet Metal Using Digital Image Correlation Method,” The Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, Vol. 52, No. 1, pp. 24–29.
Yang, L., F. Chen, W. Steinchen, and M.Y. Hung, 2004, “Digital Shearog-raphy for Nondestructive Testing: Potentials, Limitations, and Applica-tions,” Journal of Holography and Speckle, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 69–79.
Yang, L., and A. Ettemeyer, 2003, “Strain Measurement by Three-Dimen-sional Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry: Potentials, Limitations, and Applications,” Optical Engineering, Vol. 42, No. 5, pp. 1257–1266.
Zanganeh, M., Y.H. Tai, and J.R. Yates, 2012, “An Optical Method of Measuring Anisotropic Deformation and Necking in Material Testing,” Fatigue & Fracture of Engineering Materials & Structures, Vol. 35, No. 9, pp. 842–851.
144 Page Views
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares