Additive manufacturing (AM) technology, also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, rapid prototyping (RP), or solid free forms (SFF), was developed back in the early 1980s. The technology was quickly commercialized in the late 1980s, and since then, the technology has been widely used in different applications at several industrial sectors. AM offers distinct advantages from traditional, subtractive manufacturing techniques. Traditional subtractive manufacturing techniques, including milling, drilling, and turning, are techniques that start with a large block of stock material, which is then subtracted from until the final desired product is reached, leaving much of the initial block as wasted scrap. In the AM process, the part is constructed by depositing material layer by layer in the Z-direction until the final product is produced, leaving little to no waste. The process starts with a computer-aided design (CAD) model that gets sliced into individual layers using software that generates instructions, known as G-code, which are sent to the AM machine. This process allows complex geometry construction that traditional methods would have diffi-culty accomplishing or fail completely. In some cases, a secondary finishing process is needed such as polishing, sintering, curing, sanding, powder removal, or painting.
Abe, F., K. Osakada, M. Shiomi, K. Uematsu, M. Matsumoto, 2001, “The Manufacturing of Hard Tools from Metallic Powders by Selective Laser Melting,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 111, Nos. 1–3, pp. 210–213.
Ajinjeru, C., V. Kishore, X. Chen, J. Lindahl, Z. Sudbury, A. Arabi, A.A. Hassen, V. Kunc, B. Post, L. Love, and C.E. Duty, 2016, “The Influence of Rheology on Melt Processing Condi-tions of Amorphous Thermoplastics for Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM),” 27th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, TX, pp. 754–762.
Baughman, B., D. Godfrey, and N. Menon, 2016, “Advancing Aerospace Production with Metal Additive Manufacturing,” Webinar, Honeywell, accessed at arcam.com/webinar-honeywell/ on 2 March 2018.
Bauza, M.B., M.M. Kirka, R. Bhogaraju, B.S. Richardson, L. Love, L.E. Lowe, and R.R. Dehoff, 2015, “Dimensional Accuracy of Large and Complex Ti-6Al-4V Component Made via Electron Beam Melting,” Proceedings - ASPE 2015 Spring Topical Meeting: Achieving Precision Tolerances in Additive Manufacturing, Raleigh, NC, pp. 54–57.
Biswas, K., J. Rose, L. Eikevik, M. Guerguis, P. Enquist, B. Lee, L. Love, J. Green, and R. Jackson, 2017, “Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy—Enabling Innovative Solu-tions for Buildings of the Future,” Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Vol. 139, No. 1, p. 015001, doi:10.1115/1.4034980.
Bond, L., J.N. Gray, F.J. Margetan, D. Utrata, and I. Anderson, 2014, “NDE for Adding Value to Materials from Metal Powder Processing,” Proceedings of the 2014 World Congress on Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials, Orlando, FL, 11.11-15.
Brooks, A.J., J. Ge, M.M. Kirka, R.R. Dehoff, H.Z. Bilheux, N. Kardjilov, I. Manke, L.G. Butler, 2017, “Porosity Detection in Electron Beam-Melted Ti-6Al-4V using High-Resolution Neutron Imaging and Grating-based Interferometry,” Progress in Additive Manufacturing, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 125–132.
Carroll, B.E., R.A. Otis, J.P. Borgonia, J. Suh, R.P. Dillon, A.A. Shapiro, D.C. Hofmann, Z.-K. Liu, and A.M. Beese, 2016, “Functionally Graded Material of 304L Stainless Steel and Inconel 625 Fabricated by Directed Energy Deposition: Char-acterization and Thermodynamic Modeling,” Acta Materi-alia, Vol. 108, pp. 46–54.
Carter, L.N., C. Martin, P.J. Withers, M.M. Attallah, 2014, “The Influence of the Laser Scan Strategy on Grain Structure and Cracking Behaviour in SLM Powder-bed Fabricated Nickel Superalloy,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 615, pp. 338–347.
Carter, W.T., and M.G. Jones, 1993, “Direct Laser Sintering of Metals,” Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, TX, pp. 51–59.
Ciliberto, A., G. Cavaccini, O. Salvetti, M. Chimenti, L. Azzarelli, P.G. Bison, S. Marinetti, A. Freda, and E. Grinzato, 2002, “Porosity Detection in Composite Aeronautical Struc-tures,” Infrared Physics & Technology, Vol. 43, Nos. 3–5, pp. 139–143.
Collins, P.C., R. Banerjee, S. Banerjee, and H.L. Fraser, 2003, “Laser Deposition of Compositionally Graded Titanium–Vanadium and Titanium–Molybdenum Alloys,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 352, Nos. 1–2, pp. 118–128.
Conner, B.P., G.P. Manogharan, A.N. Martof, L.M. Rodomsky, C.M. Rodomsky, D.C. Jordan, and J.W. Limperos, 2014, “Making Sense of 3-D Printing: Creating a Map of Additive Manufacturing Products and Services,” Additive Manufac-turing, Vols. 1–4, pp. 64–76.
Cordero, Z.C., H.M. Meyer, P. Nandwana, R.R. Dehoff, 2017, “Powder Bed Charging during Electron-beam Additive Manufacturing,” Acta Materialia, Vol. 124, pp. 437–445.
Das, S., D.L. Bourell, and S.S. Babu, 2016, “Metallic Materials for 3D Printing,” MRS Bulletin, Vol. 41, No. 10, pp. 729–741.
Dantzig, J.A. and M. Rappaz, 2017, Solidification, second edition, EPFL Press, Lausanne, Switzerland.
Dinwiddie, R.B., M. Kirka, P. Lloyd, R. Dehoff, L. Lowe, and G. Marlow, 2016, “Calibrating IR Cameras for In-situ Temperature Measurement during the Electron Beam Melt Processing of Inconel 718 and Ti-Al6-V4,” SPIE Commercial+ Scientific Sensing and Imaging, Baltimore, Maryland, published in Thermosense: Thermal Infrared Applications XXXVIII, SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 9861, doi:10.1117/12.2229070.
Dinwiddie, R.B., L.J. Love, J.C. Rowe, 2013, “Real-time Process Monitoring and Temperature Mapping of a 3D Polymer Printing Process,” SPIE Defense, Security, and Sensing, Baltimore, Maryland, published in Thermosense: Thermal Infrared Applications XXXV, SPIE Proceedings, Vol. 8705, doi: 10.1117/12/1518454.
Dinwiddie, R.B., L.S. Parris, J.M. Lindal, V. Kunc, 2016, “The Effect of a Pre-Lens Aperture on the Temperature Range and Image Uniformity of Microbolometer Infrared Cameras,” InfraMation 2016, Las Vegas, NV.
DOE, 2015, “Chapter 6: Innovating Clean Energy Technolo-gies in Advanced Manufacturing,” Quadennial Technology Review 2015, US Department of Energy, Washington, DC.
du Plessis, A., S.G. le Roux, J. Els, G. Booysen, D.C. Blaine, 2015, “Application of microCT to the Non-destructive Testing of an Additive Manufactured Titanium Component,” Case Studies in Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation, Vol. 4, pp. 1–7.
Favaloro, A.J., B. Brenken, E. Barocio, and R.B. Pipes, 2017, “Simulation of Polymeric Composites Additive Manufac-turing using Abaqus,” Science in the Age of Experience, Chicago, IL.
Gaytan, S.M., L.E. Murr, F. Medina, E. Martinez, M.I. Lopez, R.B. Wicker, 2009, “Advanced Metal Powder based Manu-facturing of Complex Components by Electron Beam Melting,” Materials Technology, Vol. 24. No. 3, pp. 180–190.
Gibson, I., D. Rosen, and B. Stucker, 2010, Additive Manu-facturing Technologies: 3D Printing, Rapid Prototyping, and Direct Digital Manufacturing, Springer, New York, NY.
Gu, D.D., W. Meiners, K. Wissenbach, and R. Poprawe, 2012, “Laser Additive Manufacturing of Metallic Compo-nents: Materials, Processes, and Mechanisms,” Interna-tional Materials Reviews, Vol. 57, No. 3, pp. 133–164.
Hassen, A.A., J. Lindahl, X. Chen, B. Post, L. Love, and V. Kunc, 2016a, “Additive Manufacturing of Composite Tooling Using High Temperature Thermoplastic Materials,” SAMPE Conference, Long Beach, CA.
Hassen, A. A., Springfield, R., Lindah, J., Post, B.K., L.J. Love, C. Duty, U. Vaidya, R.P. Byron, and V. Kunc, 2016b, “The Durability of Large-Scale Additive Manufacturing Composite Molds,” CAMX 2016, Anaheim, CA.
Hassen, A.A., H. Taheri, and U.K. Vaidya, 2016c, “Non-destructive Investigation of Thermoplastic Reinforced Composites,” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 97, pp. 244–254.
Hassen, A. A., U.K. Vaidya, and F. Britt, 2015, “Structural Integrity of Fiber Reinforced Plastic Piping,” Materials Evalu-ation, Vol. 73, No. 7, pp. 919–929.
Holshouser, C., C. Newell, S. Palas, C. Duty, L. Love, , V. Kunc, , R. Lind, P. Lloyd, J. Rowe, R. Dehoff, W. Peter, and C. Blue, 2013, “Out of Bounds Additive Manufacturing,” Advanced Materials & Processes, Vol. 171, No. 3, pp. 15–17.
Hull, C.W., 1986, “Apparatus for Production of Three-Dimen-sional Objects by Stereolithography,” US Patent 4575330A.
Kellner, T., 2017, “An Epiphany of Disruption: GE Additive Chief Explains How 3D Printing Will Upend Manufacturing,” GE Reports, accessed at ge.com/reports/epiphany-disrup-tion-ge-additive-chief-explains-3d-printing-will-upend-manufacturing/ on 2 March 2018.
Kim, F.H., H. Villarraga-Gómez, and S.P. Moylan, 2016, “Inspection of Embedded Internal Features in Additively Manufactured Metal Parts using Metrological X-ray Computed Tomography,” 2016 Summer Topical Meeting: Dimensional Accuracy and Surface Finish in Additive Manu-facturing, published in Proceedings of the American Society for Precision Engineering Summer Topical Meeting, Raleigh, NC.
Kishore, V., C. Ajinjeru, A. Hassen, J. Lindahl, P. Liu, V. Kunc, and C. Duty, 2017, “Rheological Characteristics of Fiber Reinforced Poly (Ether Ketone Ketone) (PEKK) for Melt Extru-sion Additive Manufacturing,” SAMPE 2017, Seattle, WA.
Kishore, V., X. Chen, C. Ajinjeru, A.A. Hassen, J. Lindahl, J. Faila, V. Kunc, and C. Duty, 2016, “Additive Manufacturing of High Performance Semi-crystalline Thermoplastics and Their Composites,” 27th Annual International Solid Freeform Fabrication Symposium, Austin, TX, pp. 906–915.
Koester, L., H. Taheri, L. Bond, D. Barnard, and J. Gray, 2016, “Additive Manufacturing Metrology: State of the Art and Needs Assessment,” AIP Conference Proceedings, 42nd Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Kube, C.M., 2016, “Attenuation of Laser Generated Ultra-sound in Steel at High Temperatures; Comparison of Theory and Experimental Measurements,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 70, pp. 238–240.
Kube, C.M., 2017, “Scattering of Harmonic Waves from a Nonlinear Elastic Inclusion,” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 141, No. 6, pp. 4756–4767.
Kube, C.M., A.P. Arguelles, and J.A. Turner, 2018, “Ultra-sonic Backscatter from Elongated Grains using Line Focused Ultrasound,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 82, pp. 79–83.
Kunc, V., V. Kishore, X. Chen, C. Ajinjeru, C. Duty, and A.A. Hassen, 2017, “High Performance Poly (Etherketoneke-tone)(PEKK) Composite Parts Fabricated using Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) Processes,” Technical Report, USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), doi: 10.2172/1343535.
Kunc, V., J.M. Lindah, R.B. Dinwiddie, B.K. Post, L.J. Love, C. Duty, M. Matlack, R. Fahey Jr., and A.A. Hassen, 2016, “Investigation of In-autoclave Additive Manufacturing Composite Tooling,” CAMX Conference, Anaheim, CA.
Liu, D., J.C. Lippold, J. Li, S.R. Rohklin, J. Vollbrecht, and R. Grylls, 2014, “Laser Engineered Net Shape (LENS) Tech-nology for the Repair of Ni-Base Superalloy Turbine Compo-nents,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 45, No. 10, pp. 4454–4469.
Love, L.J., C. Duty, B. Post, R. Lind, P.D. Lloyd, V. Kunc, W.H. Peter, and C.A. Blue, 2015, “Breaking Barriers in Polymer Additive Manufacturing,” SAMPE, Baltimore, Maryland.
Love, L.J., V. Kunc, O. Rios, C.E. Duty, A. Elliott, B.K. Post, R.J. Smith, and C. Blue, 2014, “The Importance of Carbon Fiber to Polymer Additive Manufacturing,” Journal of Materials Research, Vol. 29, No. 17, pp. 1893–1898.
Melchels, F.P., J. Feijen, and D.W. Grijpma, 2010, “A Review on Stereolithography and its Applications in Biomedical Engineering,” Biomaterials, Vol. 31, No. 24, pp. 6121–6130.
Mertz, L., 2013, “Dream It, Design It, Print It In 3-D: What Can 3-D Printing Do for You?” IEEE Pulse, Vol. 4, No. 6, pp. 15–21.
Metal AM, 2017, “GE Gas Turbine Breaks Efficiency Record through Metal AM Optimisation,” Metal-am.com, accessed at metal-am.com/ge-gas-turbine-breaks-efficiency-record-metal-optimisation/ on 2 March 2018.
Miller, D.J., 2015, “Material Coefficient of Thermal Expan-sion Investigation for Use in Additive Manufacturing Fused Deposition Modeling for Composite Tooling,” Master’s Thesis, Aquila, University of Southern Mississippi.
Molitch-Hou, M., 2017, “Michelin and Fives’ AddUp: From Making Tires to Making Metal 3D Printers,” engineering.com, accessed at engineering.com/3DPrinting/3DPrintingArticles/ArticleID/ 14211/Michelin-and-Fives-AddUp-From-Making-Tires-to-Making-Metal-3D-Printers.aspx on 2 March 2018.
Raplee, J., A. Plotkowski, M.M. Kirka, R. Dinwiddie, A. Okello, R.R. Dehoff, and S.S. Babu, 2017, “Thermographic Microstructure Monitoring in Electron Beam Additive Manu-facturing,” Scientific Reports, No. 7, article no. 43554, doi:10.1038/srep43554.
Sames, W., 2015, “Additive Manufacturing of Inconel 718 using Electron Beam Melting: Processing, Post-Processing, and Mechanical Properties,” doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University, available from http://hdl .handle .net/1969 .1 /155230.
Sames, W., F. Medina, W.H. Peter, S.S. Babu, and R.R. Dehoff, 2014, “Effect of Process Control and Powder Quality on Inconel 718 Produced Using Electron Beam Melting,” 8th International Symposium on Superalloy 718 and Deriva-tives, pp. 409–423, doi: 10.1002/9781119016854.ch32.
Seay, S., 2017, “Exploring Bioderived Composite Materials: ORNL 3D Prints DesignMiami Pavilions,” retrieved from https://www.ornl.gov/content/exploring-bioderived-composite-materials-ornl-3d-prints-designmiami-pavilions.
Sochalski-Kolbus, L.M., E.A. Payzant, P.A. Cornwell, T.R. Watkins, S.S. Babu, R.R. Dehoff, M. Lorenz, O. Ovchin-nikova, and C. Duty, C., 2015, “Comparison of Residual Stresses in Inconel 718 Simple Parts Made by Electron Beam Melting and Direct Laser Metal Sintering,” Metallur-gical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 46, No. 3, pp. 1419–1432.
Song, Y., C. M. Kube, J.A. Turner, and X. Li, 2017, “Statistics Associated with the Scattering of Ultrasound from Microstructure,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 80, pp. 58–61, doi: 10.1016/j.ultras.2017.05.002.
Taheri, H., Bigelow, T., Bond, L. J., Braconnier, D., Carcreff, E., Dao, G., . . . Hassen, A. A. (2018), “Fast Ultrasonic Imaging with Total Focusing Method (TFM) for Inspection of Additively Manufactured Polymer Composite Component,” 27th ASNT Research Symposium, Orlando, FL.
Taheri, H., L.W. Koester, T.A. Bigelow, and L.J. Bond, 2017a, “Thermoelastic Finite Element Modeling of Laser Generated Ultrasound in Additive Manufacturing Materials,” 2017 ASNT Annual Conference, Nashville, Tennessee.
Taheri, H., M.R.B.M. Shoaib, L.W. Koester, T.A. Bigelow, P.C. Collins, and L.J. Bond, 2017b, “Powder-Based Additive Manufacturing: A Review of Types of Defects, Generation Mechanisms, Detection, Property Evaluation and Metrology,” International Journal of Additive and Subtractive Materials Manufacturing, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 172-209, https://doi.org/10.1504/IJASMM.2017.088204.
Todorov, E. I., 2017, “Measurement of Electromagnetic Properties of Powder and Solid Metal Materials for Additive Manufacturing,” paper presented at the SPIE Smart Struc-tures and Materials + Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring, 2017, Portland, Oregon; in Proceedings, Nondestructive Characterization and Monitoring of Advanced Materials, Aerospace, and Civil Infrastructure 2017; Vol. 10169; doi: 10.1117/12.2261393.
Türk, D.-A., F. Brenni, M. Zogg, and M. Meboldt, 2017, “Mechanical Characterization of 3D Printed Polymers for Fiber Reinforced Polymers Processing,” Materials & Design, Vol.118, pp. 256–265, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2017.01.050.
Villarraga, H., S.T. Smith, C. Lee, T. Corbett, and J.A. Tarbutton, 2015, “Assessing Additive Manufacturing Processes with X-ray CT Metrology,” paper presented at the ASPE 2015 Spring Topical Meeting: Achieving Precision Tolerances in Additive Manufacturing, Raleigh, NC,
pp. 116–121; http://aspe.net/publications/Spring_2015/Spring2015.pdf.
Wang, X., M. Jiang, Z. Zhou, J. Gou, and D. Hui, 2017, “3D printing of polymer matrix composites: a review and prospective,” Composites Part B: Engineering, 110, pp. 442–458, doi: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2015.02.013.
Weingarten, C, Buchbinder, D., Pirch, N., W. Meiners, K. Wissenbach, and R. Poprawe, 2015, “Formation and Reduc-tion of Hydrogen Porosity during Selective Laser Melting of AlSi10Mg,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 221, pp. 112–120.
Wohlers, T., and T. Caffrey, 2016, Wohlers Report 2016: 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing State of the Industry, Wohlers Associates, Inc., Fort Collins, CO.
498 Page Views
0 PDF Downloads
1 Facebook Shares