Comparison Between Contact and Immersion Ultrasonic Techniques to Evaluate Longitudinal Residual Stress in Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Plates
Publication: Publication Date: 1 September 2015Testing Method:
Ultrasonic stress measurement is a nondestructive technique that has increasingly been employed to evaluate the welding residual stress of different materials. This study compares contact and immersion ultrasonic waves employed to measure residual stresses that are produced by friction stir welding (FSW) of 5086 aluminum plates. The ultrasonic stress measurement technique employs critically refracted longitudinal (LCR) waves produced by 2 MHz contact and immersion ultrasonic probes. The LCR waves are longitudinal ultrasonic waves propagated parallel to the surface within an effective depth inside the material. A finite element simulation of the welding process, verified by a holedrilling technique, was also used to validate the results of ultrasonic stress measurement. The combination of using finite element analysis along with the LCR technique is known as the FELCR technique. The ultrasonic technique is able to measure the average of stresses within the depth of material; hence, subsurface stress analysis by the finite element technique was used for comparison with the ultrasonicmeasurement results. The distribution of longitudinal residual stress was determined by employing the FELCR technique and utilizing the contact and immersion probes separately. The results were then compared, showing no considerable difference between using the contact and immersion probes in ultrasonic stress measurement of FSW on the aluminum plates.
- ASTM, ASTM E 8, Standard Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania, 2015.
- Belahcene, F., and J. Lu, “Determination of Residual Stress using Critically Refracted Longitudinal Waves and Immersion Mode,” Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design, Vol. 37, No. 1, 2002, pp. 13–19.
- Bray D.E., and W. Tang, “Subsurface Stress Evaluation in Steel Plates and Bars using the LCR Ultrasonic Wave,” Nuclear Engineering and Design, Vol. 207, No. 2, 2001, pp. 231–240.
- Buffa, G., L. Fratini, S. Pasta, and R. Shivpuri, “On the Thermo-mechanical Loads and the Resultant Residual Stresses in Friction Stir Processing Operations” CIRP Annals – Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 57, No. 1, 2008, pp. 287–290.
- Buffa, G., J. Hua, R. Shivpuri, and L. Fratini, “A Continuum Based FEM Model for Friction Stir Welding—Model Development,” Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 419, Nos. 1–2, 2006, pp. 389–396.
- Bussu, G., and P.E. Irving, “The Role of Residual Stress and Heat Affected Zone Properties on Fatigue Crack Propagation in Friction Stir Welded 2024-T351 Aluminum Joints” International Journal of Fatigue, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2003, pp. 77–88.
- Crecraft, D.I., “The Measurement of Applied and Residual Stresses in Metals using Ultrasonic Waves,” Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1967, pp. 173–192.
- Egle, D.M., and D.E. Bray, “Measurement of Acoustoelastic and Thirdorder Elastic Constants for Rail Steel,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 60, 1976, pp. 741–744.
- Guerra, M., C. Schmidt, J.C. McClure, L.E. Murr, and A.C. Nunes, “Flow Patterns during Friction Stir Welding” Materials Characterization, Vol. 49, No. 2, 2002, pp. 95–101.
- Javadi, Y., and M. Ahmadi Najafabadi, “Comparison Between Contact and Immersion Ultrasonic Method to Evaluate Welding Residual Stresses of Dissimilar Joints,” Materials & Design, Vol. 47, May 2013, pp. 473–482.
- Javadi, Y., M.A. Najafabadi, and M. Akhlaghi, “Residual Stress Evaluation in Dissimilar Welded Joints using Finite Element Simulation and the LCR Ultrasonic Wave,” Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing, Vol. 48, No. 9, 2012, pp. 541–552.
- Javadi, Y., M.A. Najafabadi, and M. Akhlaghi, “Comparison between Contact and Immersion Method in Ultrasonic Stress Measurement of Welded Stainless Steel Plates,” Journal of Testing and Evaluation, Vol. 41, No. 5, 2013a, pp. 1–10.
- Javadi, Y., M. Akhlaghi, and M.A. Najafabadi, “Using Finite Element and Ultrasonic Method to Evaluate Welding Longitudinal Residual Stress through the Thickness in Austenitic Stainless Steel Plates,” Materials & Design, Vol. 45, March 2013b, pp. 628–642.
- Javadi, Y., O. Afzali, M.H. Raeisi, and M.A. Najafabadi, “Nondestructive Evaluation of Welding Residual Stresses in Dissimilar Welded Pipes,” Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 32, No. 2, 2013c, pp. 177–187.
- Javadi, Y., H.S. Pirzaman, M.H. Raeisi, and M.A. Najafabadi, “Ultrasonic Evaluation of Welding Residual Stresses in Stainless Steel Pressure Vessel,” Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology, Vol. 135, No. 4, 2013d, pp. 1–6.
- Javadi, Y., H.S. Pirzaman, M.H. Raeisi, and M.A. Najafabadi, “Ultrasonic Inspection of a Welded Stainless Steel Pipe to Evaluate Residual Stresses through Thickness,” Materials & Design, Vol. 49, August 2013e, pp. 591–601.
- Javadi, Y., S. Sadeghi, and M.A. Najafabadi, “Taguchi Optimization and Ultrasonic Measurement of Residual Stresses in the Friction Stir Welding,” Materials & Design, Vol. 55, March 2014a, pp. 27–34.
- Javadi, Y., M. Akhlaghi, and M.A. Najafabadi, “Nondestructive Evaluation of Welding Residual Stresses in Austenitic Stainless Steel Plates,” Research in Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 25, 2014b, pp. 30–43.
- Javadi, Y., M. Hasani, and S. Sadeghi, “Investigation of Clamping Effect on the Welding Sub-surface Residual Stress and Deformation by using the Ultrasonic Stress Measurement and Finite Element Method,” Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 34, No. 1, 2015, pp. 1–11.
- Liu, H.J., H. Fujii, M. Maeda, and K. Nogi, “Tensile Properties and Fracture Locations of Friction-stir-welded Joints of 2017-T351 Aluminum Alloy,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 142, No. 3, 2003, pp. 692–696.
- Palanichamy, P., M. Vasudevan, and T. Jayakumar, “Measurement of Residual Stresses in Austenitic Stainless Steel Weld Joints using Ultrasonic Technique,” Science and Technology of Welding & Joining, Vol. 14, 2009, pp. 166–171.
- Peel, M., A. Steuwer, M. Preuss, and P.J. Withers, “Microstructure, Mechanical Properties and Residual Stresses as a Function of Welding Speed in Aluminum AA5083 Friction Stir Welds,” Acta Materialia, Vol. 51, No. 16, 2003, pp. 4791–4801.
- Prevéy, P., and M. Mahoney, “Improved Fatigue Performance of Friction Stir Welds with Low Plasticity Burnishing: Residual Stress Design and Fatigue Performance Assessment,” Materials Science Forum, Vol. 426, 2003, pp. 2933–2940.
- Rhodes, C.G., M.W. Mahoney, W.H. Bingel, R.A. Spurling, and C.C. Bampton, “Effects of Friction Stir Welding on Microstructure of 7075 Aluminum,” Scripta Materialia, Vol. 31, No. 1, 1997, pp. 69–75.
- Sadeghi, S., M.A. Najafabadi, Y. Javadi, and M. Mohammadisefat, “Using Ultrasonic Waves and Finite Element Method to Evaluate Throughthickness Residual Stresses Distribution in the Friction Stir Welding of Aluminum Plates,” Materials & Design, Vol. 52, December 2013, pp. 870–880.
- Shokuhfar, A., and O. Nejadseyfi, “A Comparison of the Effects of Severe Plastic Deformation and Heat Treatment on the Tensile Properties and Impact Toughness of Aluminum Alloy 6061,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 594, 2014, pp. 140–148.
- Staron, P., M. Kocak, and S. Williams, “Residual Stresses in Friction Stirwelded Al Sheets,” Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, Vol. 74, No. 1, 2002, pp. 1161–1162.
- Tang, W., and D.E. Bray, “Stress and Yielding Studies using Critically Refracted Longitudinal Waves,” Proceedings of the 1996 ASME Pressure Vessels Piping Conference on NDE Engineering Codes and Standards and Material Characterization, Montreal, Canada, July 1996, pp. 41–48.
- Thomas, W.M., E.D. Nicholas, J.C. Needham, M.G. Murch, P. Temple- Smith, and C.J. Dawes, “Improvements Relating to Friction Welding,” International Patent WO1993010935 A1, World Intellectual Property Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1993.
314 Page Views
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares