Article Article
Ultrasonic Characterization of Porosity in Components Made by Binder Jet Additive Manufacturing

Binder jet metallic additive manufacturing (AM) is a popular alternative to powder bed fusion and directed energy deposition because of lower costs, elimination of thermal cycling, and lower energy consumption. However, like other metallic AM processes, binder jetting is prone to defects like porosity, which decreases the adoption of binder-jetted parts. Binder-jetted parts are sometimes infiltrated with a low melting temperature metal to fill pores during sintering; however, the infiltration is impacted by the part geometry and infiltration environment, which can cause infill nonuniformity. Furthermore, using an infiltration metal creates a complicated multiphase microstructure substantially different than common wrought materials and alloys. To bring insight to the binder jet/infiltration process toward part qualification and improved part quality, spatially dependent ultrasonic wave speed and attenuation techniques are being applied to help characterize and map porosity in parts made by binder jet AM. In this paper, measurements are conducted on binder-jetted stainless steel and stainless steel infiltrated with bronze samples. X-ray computed tomography (XCT) is used to provide an assessment of porosity.



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