Article Article
Magnetic Method for Evaluating Mechanical Properties of Steel Cylinders

Using a nondestructive testing method based on hysteresis behavior, the structural-mechanical dependence of the coercive force of 35CrMo steel components was compared with that of standard specimens. As described in the magnetic Jiles–Atherton model, the magnetic coercive force of the cylinders was inversely proportional to the grain refinement, which was validated by means of metallographic examination and hardness tests. Simultaneously, this study presented an experimental validation by destructive testing for determining the relationship between the measured magnetic parameter and the property of concern and a linear correlation between coercive force and hardness. These observations provide a method to quickly and nondestructively evaluate the mechanical properties of steel components.



Becker, R., and W. Döring, 1939, Ferromagnetismus, Verlag von Julius Springer, Berlin

Bernard, M., C. Scheer, V. Böhm, W. Reimche, and F. Bach, 2009, “New Developments in Non-destructive Testing for Quality Assurance in Component Manufacturing,” Steel Research International, Vol. 80, No. 12, pp. 916–928,

Bida, G.V., 2002, “Magnetic Properties of a Body as Nondestructive Testing Parameters of Tempering Quality of Quenched Steels (A Review),” Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing, Vol. 38, pp. 412–424,

Bozorth, R.M., and J.F. Dillinger, 1935, “Heat Treatment of Magnetic Materials in a Magnetic Field II. Experiments with Two Alloys,” Physics, Vol. 6, pp. 285–291,

Dupré, L., M.J. Sablik, R. Van Keer, and J. Melkebeek, 2002, “Modelling of Microstructural Effects on Magnetic Hysteresis Properties,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 35,

Fan, Y.Y., 2014, “Ultrasonic Testing for the Hardened Layer Depth of Induction Quenched 20CrMo Axle,” Applied Mechanics and Materials, Vols. 668–669, pp. 302–305,

Jiles, D.C., and D.L. Atherton, 1986, “Theory of Ferromagnetic Hysteresis,” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, Vol. 61, Nos. 1–2, pp. 48–60,

Kashefi, M., and S. Kahrobaee, 2010, “On the Application of Non-destructive Eddy Current Method for Quality Control of Heat Treated Parts,” 18th IFHTSE Congress, 26–30 July, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, pp. 4877–4885

Kersten, M., 1943, “Underlying Theory of Ferromagnetic Hysteresis and Coercivity,” Zeitschrift für Physik, Vol. 44, pp. 63–68

Kolokolnikov, S., A. Dubov, and O. Steklov, 2016, “Assessment of Welded Joints Stress–Strain State Inhomogeneity Before and After Post Weld Heat Treatment based on the Metal Magnetic Memory Method,” Welding in the World, Vol. 60, pp. 665–672,

Kondorskij, E.J., 1937, “On the Question of Coercivity and Irreversible Magnetization Changes,” Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Vol. 7, pp. 1117–1131

Lasaosa, A., K. Gurruchaga, F. Arizti, and A. Martinez-De-Guerenu, 2017, “Induction Hardened Layer Characterization and Grinding Burn Detection by Magnetic Barkhausen Noise Analysis,” Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 36,

Mikheev, M.N., and E.S. Gorkunov, 1979, “Magnetic Methods of Monitoring Quality of Heat Treatment,” 9th World Conference on Non-destructive Testing, Melbourne, Australia

Mikheev, M.N., and E.S. Gorkunov, 1993, Magnetic Methods of Structural Analysis and Nondestructive Testing, (in Russian), MAIK Nauka, Nauka, Moscow

Mikheev, M.N., E.S. Gorkunov, V.M. Somova, and A.B. Kut’kin, 1982, “Interrelation of the Magnetic and Mechanical Properties with the Structural State of Hardened and Tempered Products,” The Soviet Journal of Nondestructive Testing, Vol. 18, No. 9, pp. 725–732

Mitra, A., J.N. Mohapatra, J. Swaminathan, M. Ghosh, A.K. Panda, and R.N. Ghosh, 2007, “Magnetic Evaluation of Creep in Modified 9Cr–1Mo Steel,” Scripta Materialia, Vol. 57, No. 9, pp. 813–816,

Muravyev, V.V., O.V. Muravyeva, and E.N. Kokorina, 2013, “Quality Control of Heat Treatment of 60C2A Steel Bars Using the Electromagnetic–Acoustic Method,” Russian Journal of Nondestructive Testing, Vol. 49, pp. 15–25,

Okada, H., 1987, “Effect of Mo Content and Heat Treatment Conditions on Hydrogen Attack of Steel for Pressure Vessel,” Tetsu-to-Hagane, Vol. 73, No. 1, pp. 167–174,

Ostash, O.P., O.V. Vol’demarov, and P.V. Hladysh, 2014, “Diagnostics of the Structural-Mechanical State of Steels of Steam Pipelines by the Coercimetric Method and Prediction of Their Service Life,” Materials Science, Vol. 49, pp. 667–680,

Raja, A.R., M. Vashista, and M.Z.K. Yusufzai, 2020, “Estimation of Material Properties Using Hysteresis Loop Analysis in Friction Stir Welded Steel Plate,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, Vol. 814,

Rajaei, M., S.H. Elahi, and M. Mashhadgarme, 2020, “A Novel Method for Quality Control of Post Weld Heat Treatment Process Using Modal Parameters,” NDT & E International, Vol. 111,

Sablik, M.J., 2001, “Modeling the Effect of Grain Size and Dislocation Density on Hysteretic Magnetic Properties in Steels,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 89, pp. 5610–5613,

Sablik, M.J., and F.J.G. Landgraf, 2003, “Modeling Microstructural Effects on Hysteresis Loops with the Same Maximum Flux Density,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 39, No. 5, pp. 2528–2530,

Sandomirskii, S.G., 2016, “Influence of Heat Treatment on the Residual Magnetization of Steel in Partial Magnetic Hysteresis,” Steel in Translation, Vol. 46, pp. 290–294,

Singh, S.S., A.S. Awale, A. Chaudhari, and B. Nahak, 2020, “Monitoring the Microstructural Changes of Heat Treated Medium Carbon Steel by Barkhausen Noise and Hysteresis Loop Techniques,” Materials Today: Proceedings, Vol. 26, pt. 2, pp. 1198–1202,

Sudharsanam, V., V. Senthilkumar, N. Raju, and R. Vetriselvan, 2015, “Evaluation of Post Weld Heat Treatment Quality of Modified 9Cr–1Mo (P91) Steel Weld by Magnetic Coercive Force Measurements,” Archives of Civil & Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 15, No. 4, pp. 847–853

Szlagowska-Spychalska, J.M., M.M. Spychalski, and K.J. Kurzydlowski, 2013, “A Novel Approach for Measuring of Thickness of Induction Hardened Layers based on the Eddy Current Method and the Finite Element Modeling,” NDT & E International, Vol. 54, pp. 56–62,

Theiner, W.A., B. Reimringer, P. Deimel, D. Kuppler, and D. Schroeder-Obst, 1983, “Non-destructive Analysis of the Structure of Pressure-Vessel Steels by Micromagnetic Testing Techniques,” Nuclear Engineering and Design, Vol. 76, No. 3, pp. 251–260,

Vicena, F., 1954, “On the Connection between the Coercive Force of a Ferromagnetic and Internal Stress,” Czechoslovak Journal of Physics, Vol. 4, pp. 436–438,

Vonsovskii, S.V., 1971, Magnetism, (in Russian), Moskva Izdat. Nauka, Nauka, Moscow

Yan, G., Y. Sun, J. Gu, and C. Li, 2021, “Effect of Initial Microstructure on Mechanical Properties of Pressure Vessel Steel after Intercritical Heat Treatment,” Metal Science and Heat Treatment, Vol. 63, pp. 70–79,

Yelbay, H.I., I. Cam, and C.H. Gür, 2010, “Non-destructive Determination of Residual Stress State in Steel Weldments by Magnetic Barkhausen Noise Technique,” NDT & E International, Vol. 43, pp. 29–33,


Usage Shares
Total Views
8 Page Views
Total Shares
0 Tweets
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares
Total Usage