Article Article
Experimental Investigation of Double-Sided Strain of Composites in Tensile Testing Using MultiCamera DIC

Composite materials are widely used in engineering because of their high strength, high modulus, and corrosion resistance. Accurately obtaining the mechanical properties of composites is helpful for their further development. However, in a uniaxial tensile test, the strain distribution between the front and back of the composite sheet sample may differ due to its heterogeneity, and its stress-strain curve depends on which side the strain is measured. To report the stress-strain curve more accurately, a multicamera digital image correlation (DIC) system was employed to measure the double-sided strain in this work. Two sets of 3D digital image correlation (3D-DIC) systems were placed in front of and behind the specimen to record the tensile process of the specimen, and a double-sided calibration technique was implemented to connect the two sets of 3D-DIC systems into a unified coordinate system. Young’s modulus, percent bending, and local strain history are analyzed based on the measurements of strain on both sides. The results show that the strain on both sides of the composite is not exactly same, especially in the strain concentration area. As a comparison, the strain distribution on both sides of the metal material is almost identical.



ASTM. 2000. ASTM D3039/D3039M-00: Standard test method for tensile properties of polymer matrix composite materials. ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.

Booysen, F. 2002. “An overview and evaluation of composite indices of development.” Social Indicators Research 59 (2): 115–51.

Catalanotti, G., P.P. Camanho, J. Xavier, C.G. Dávila, and A.T. Marques. 2010. “Measurement of resistance curves in the longitudinal failure of composites using digital image correlation.” Composites Science and Technology 70 (13): 1986–93.

Chen, X., L. Yang, N. Xu, X. Xie, B. Sia, and R. Xu. 2014. “Cluster approach based multi-camera digital image correlation: Methodology and its application in large area high temperature measurement.” Optics & Laser Technology 57: 318–26.

Clyne, T. W., and D. Hull. 2019. An introduction to composite materials. Cambridge university press.

Fang, S., Y. Fang, X. Zheng, B. Guo, L. Yang, D. Zeng, and Z. Li. 2022. “Large-angle full-field strain measurement of small-sized objects based on the multi-camera DIC test system.” SAE Technical Paper 2022-01-0274.

Fang, S., X. Zheng, G. Zheng, B. Zhang, B. Guo, and L. Yang. 2021. “A New and Direct R-Value Measurement Method of Sheet Metal Based on Multi-Camera DIC System.” Metals 11 (9): 1401.

Fauster, E., P. Schalk, and P.L. O’Leary. 2005. “Evaluation and calibration methods for the application of a video-extensometer to tensile testing of polymer materials.” In Machine Vision Applications in Industrial Inspection XIII 5679: 187–198.

Genovese, K., L. Cortese, M. Rossi, and D. Amodio. 2016. “A 360-deg digital image correlation system for materials testing.” Optics and Lasers in Engineering 82: 127–34.

Hart, E.W. 1967. “Theory of the tensile test.” Acta Metallurgica 15 (2): 351–55.

He, T., L. Liu, A. Makeev, and B. Shonkwiler. 2016. “Characterization of stress–strain behavior of composites using digital image correlation and finite element analysis.” Composite Structures 140: 84–93.

Helm, J.D., S.R. McNeill, and M.A. Sutton. 1996. “Improved three-dimensional image correlation for surface displacement measurement.” Optical Engineering (Redondo Beach, Calif.) 35 (7): 1911–20.

Hercher, M. 1988. Non-contact lateral displacement sensor and extensometer system. US Patent 4,872,751, filed 14 January 1988, and issued 10 October 1989. 

Justusson, B.P., D.M. Spagnuolo, and J.H. Yu. 2013. Assessing the applicability of digital image correlation (DIC) technique in tensile testing of fabric composites. Report. Army research lab aberdeen proving ground MD weapons and materials research directorate.

Kahn-Jetter, Z.L., and T.C. Chu. 1990. “Three-dimensional displacement measurements using digital image correlation and photogrammic analysis.” Experimental Mechanics 30 (1): 10–16.

Laurin, F., J.S. Charrier, D. Lévêque, J.F. Maire, A. Mavel, and P. Nuñez. 2012. “Determination of the properties of composite materials thanks to digital image correlation measurements.” Procedia IUTAM 4: 106–15.

Li, J., G. Yang, T. Siebert, M.F. Shi, and L. Yang. 2018. “A method of the direct measurement of the true stress–strain curve over a large strain range using multi-camera digital image correlation.” Optics and Lasers in Engineering 107: 194–201.

Li, J., X. Xie, G. Yang, B. Zhang, T. Siebert, and L. Yang. 2017. “Whole-field thickness strain measurement using multiple camera digital image correlation system.” Optics and Lasers in Engineering 90: 19–25.

Pan, B., and B. Chen. 2019. “A novel mirror-assisted multi-view digital image correlation for dual-surface shape and deformation measurements of sheet samples.” Optics and Lasers in Engineering 121: 512–20.

Pan, B., K. Qian, H. Xie, and A. Asundi. 2009. “Two-dimensional digital image correlation for in-plane displacement and strain measurement: A review.” Measurement Science & Technology 20 (6): 062001.

Peters, W.H., and W.F. Ranson. 1982. “Digital imaging techniques in experimental stress analysis.” Optical Engineering (Redondo Beach, Calif.) 21 (3): 427–31.

Shinoda, M., and R.J. Bathurst. 2004. “Strain measurement of geogrids using a video-extensometer technique.” Geotechnical Testing Journal 27 (5): 456–63.

Strength, C.F. 1979. “Modulus and Properties of Fabric-Reinforced Laminates.” Composite Materials: Testing and Design (Fifth Conference), ed. S.W. Tsai, American Society for Testing and Materials, p. 228.

Sutton, M.A., J.J. Orteu, and H. Schreier. 2009. Image correlation for shape, motion and deformation measurements: basic concepts, theory and applications. Springer Science & Business Media.

Sutton, M.A., W.J. Wolters, W.H. Peters, W.F. Ranson, and S.R. McNeill. 1983. “Determination of displacements using an improved digital correlation method.” Image and Vision Computing 1 (3): 133–39.

Wang, Y.H., J.H. Jiang, C. Wanintrudal, C. Du, D. Zhou, L.M. Smith, and L.X. Yang. 2010. “Whole field sheet-metal tensile test using digital image correlation.” Experimental Techniques 34 (2): 54–59.

Yamaguchi, I. 1986. “Automatic measurement of in-plane translation by speckle correlation using a linear image sensor.” Journal of Physics. E, Scientific Instruments 19 (11): 944–48.


Usage Shares
Total Views
130 Page Views
Total Shares
0 Tweets
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares
Total Usage