Article Article
Characterization of Wall-Loss Defects in Curved GFRP Composites Using Pulsed Thermography

Curved glass fiber–reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites are superior to alloy-steel pipes due to their excellent corrosive resistance properties, finding wide applications in the transportation of petrochemicals, chemical storage tanks, and power and water-treatment plants. Among the defects found in GFRP pipes, internal pitting or wall loss is one of the most severe, caused by material deterioration and the friction of small particles in the transfer fluid. This study investigates these in-service discontinuities using a pulsed thermal nondestructive evaluation technique. The paper focuses on the quantification of defect depth using the temperature peak contrast derivative and defect sizing using the full width at half maximum method. Further, the paper investigates the ability of pulsed thermography to estimate pitting or wall-loss defects at various depths and sizes through simulation and experimentation. Thermographic signal reconstruction images are used for quantification of defects at a deeper depth. The results of the present study are then compared with well-established ultrasonic C-scan results.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.32548/2022.me-04160

References

Almond, D.P., and S.K. Lau, 1994, “Defect Sizing by Transient Thermography. I. An Analytical Treatment,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 27, No. 5, https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/27/5/027

Almond, D.P., and P.M. Patel, 1996, Photothermal Science and Techniques, Chapman & Hall, UK

Almond, D.P., P. Delpech, M.H. Beheshtey, and P. Wen, 1996, “Quantitative Determination of Impact Damage and other Defects in Carbon Fiber Composites by Transient Thermography,” Proceedings Vol. 2944, Nondestructive Evaluation of Materials and Composites, https://doi.org/10.1117/12.259066

Amenabar, I., A. Mendikute, A. López-Arraiza, M. Lizaranzu, and J. Aurrekoetxea, 2011, “Comparison and Analysis of Non-destructive Testing Techniques Suitable for Delamination Inspection in Wind Turbine Blades,” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 42, No. 5, pp. 1298–1305, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2011.01.025

Baltzersen, Q., J. Bang, B. Moursund, and B. Melve, 1995, “Ultrasonic Inspection of Adhesive Bonded Coupler Joints in GRP Piping Systems,” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, Vol. 14, No. 4, pp. 362–377, https://doi.org/10.1177/073168449501400404

Britt, F., 1993, Design of FRP Piping Systems, Britt Engineering Inc., Birmingham, AL

Dong, J., B. Kim, A. Locquet, P. McKeon, N. Declercq, and D.S. Citrin, 2015, “Nondestructive Evaluation of Forced Delamination in Glass Fiber-Reinforced Composites by Terahertz and Ultrasonic Waves,” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 79, pp. 667–675, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2015.05.028

Colombo, C., F. Libonati, F. Pezzani, A. Salerno, and L. Vergani, 2011, “Fatigue Behaviour of a GFRP Laminate by Thermographic Measure-ments,” Procedia Engineering, Vol. 10, pp. 3518–3527, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2011.04.579

Gashoot, S.R., and R.A. Al-Madani, 2014, “A Survey of GRP Pipes Defects and Damage due to Fabrication Processes,” International Conference on Production and Mechanical Engineering (ICPME’2014), 30–31 December, Bangkok, Thailand

Ghiseok, K., K.-S. Lee, H. Hur, S.-J. Kim, and G.-H. Kim, 2015, “NDE of Low-Velocity Impact Damage in GFRP Using Infrared Thermography Techniques,” Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing, Vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 206–214, https://doi.org/10.7779/JKSNT.2015.35.3.206

Gholizadeh, S., 2016, “A Review of Non-destructive Testing Methods of Composite Materials,” Procedia Structural Integrity, Vol. 1, pp. 50–57, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prostr.2016.02.008

Grosso, M., J.E.C. Lopez, V.M.A. Silva, S.D. Soares, J.M.A. Rebello, and G.R. Pereira, 2016, “Pulsed Thermography Inspection of Adhesive Composite Joints: Computational Simulation Model and Experimental Validation,” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 106, pp. 1–9, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2016.09.011

Hamzah, A.R., P. Delpech, M.B. Saintey, and D.P. Almond, 1996, “An Experimental Investigation of Defect Sizing by Transient Thermography,” Insight (Northampton), Vol. 38, pp. 167–170, 173, available at https://pascal-francis.inist.fr/vibad/index.php?action=getRecordDetail&idt=2999559

Hassen, A.A., U.K. Vaidya, and F. Britt, 2015, “Structural Integrity of Fiber Reinforced Plastic Piping,” Materials Evaluation, Vol. 73, pp. 918–929 

Kalyanavalli, V., T.K. Abilasha Ramadhas, and D. Sastikumar, 2019, “Determination of Thermal Diffusivity of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composite Using Infrared Thermography,” Measurement, Vol. 134, pp. 673–678, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2018.11.004

Khomenko, A., O. Karpenko, E. Koricho, M. Haq, G.L. Cloud, and L. Udpa, 2016, “Theory and Validation of Optical Transmission Scanning for Quan-titative NDE Of Impact Damage in GFRP Composites,” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 107, pp. 182–191, http://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2016.09.081

Khomenko, A., O. Karpenko, E.G. Koricho, M. Haq, G.L. Cloud, and L. Udpa, 2017, “Quantitative Comparison of Optical Transmission Scanning with Conventional Techniques for NDE of Impact Damage in GFRP Composites,” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 123, pp. 92–104, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2017.05.008

Lau, S.K., D.P. Almond, and J.M. Milne, 1991, “A Quantitative Analysis of Pulsed Video Thermography,” NDT & E International, Vol. 24, No. 4, pp. 195–202, https://doi.org/10.1016/0963-8695(91)90267-7

Maldague, X.P., 2001, Theory and Practice of Infrared Technology for Nondestructive Testing, Wiley

Meola, C., and G.M. Carlomagno, 2010, “Impact Damage in GFRP: New insights with Infrared Thermography,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol. 41, No. 12, pp. 1839–1847, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2010.09.002

Montanini, R., and F. Freni, 2012, “Non-destructive Evaluation of Thick Glass Fiber-Reinforced Composites by Means of Optically Excited Lock-In Thermography,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol. 43, No. 11, pp. 2075–2082, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa .2012.06.004

Moskovchenko, A.I., V.P. Vavilov, R. Bernegger, C. Maierhofer, and A.O. Chulkov, 2020, “Detecting Delaminations in Semitransparent Glass Fiber Composite by Using Pulsed Infrared Thermography,” Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 39, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10921-020-00717-x

Pastuszak, P.D., 2016, “Characterization of Defects in Curved Composite Structures Using Active Infrared Thermography,” Procedia Engineering, Vol. 157, pp. 325–332, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2016.08.373

Quek, S., and D.P. Almond, 2005, “Defect Detection Capability of Pulsed Transient Thermography,” Insight, Vol. 47, No. 4, https://doi.org/10.1784/insi.47.4.212.63153

Ray, B.C., S.T. Hasan, and D.W. Clegg, 2007, “Evaluation of Defects in FRP Composites by NDT Techniques,” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, Vol. 26, No. 12, pp. 1187-1192, https://doi.org/10.1177/0731684407079348

Ringermacher, H.I., R.J. Archacki, and W.A. Veronesi, 1996, Nondestructive Testing: Transient Depth Thermography, US Patent 5,711,603, filed 30 October 1996, and issued 27 January 1998 

Saintey, M.B., and D.P. Almond, 1995, “Defect Sizing by Transient Thermography. II. A Numerical Treatment,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 28, No. 12, https://doi.org/10.1088/0022-3727/28/12/023

Scott, I.G., and C.M. Scala, 1982, “A Review of Non-destructive Testing of Composite Materials,” NDT International, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 75–86, https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-9126(82)90001-3

Shen, G., and T. Li, 2007, “Infrared Thermography for High-Temperature Pressure Pipe,” Insight, Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 151–153, https://doi.org/10.1784/insi.2007.49.3.151

Sharath, D., M. Menaka, and B. Venkatraman, 2012, “Defect Characterization Using Pulsed and Lock in Thermography: A Comparative Study,” Journal of Nondestructive Testing & Evaluation, Vol. 11, pp. 58–63

Sharath, D., M. Menaka, and B. Venkatraman, 2013, “Defect Characterization Using Pulsed Thermography,” Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 32, pp. 134–141, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10921-012-0166-4

Shepard, S.M., 2000, Temporal Noise Reduction, Compression and Analysis of Thermographic Image Data Sequences, US Patent 6,516,084 B2, filed 4 December 2000, and issued 4 February 2003

Sun, J.G., 2006, “Analysis of Pulsed Thermography Methods for Defect Depth Prediction,” Journal of Heat Transfer, Vol. 128, No. 4, pp. 329–338, https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2165211

Thermo-Calc Software, 1998, 6L Operation Manual

Vijayaraghavan, G.K., and S. Sundaravalli, 2011, “Evaluation of Pits in GRP Composite Pipes by Thermal NDT Technique,” Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, Vol. 30, No. 19, pp. 1599–1604, https://doi.org/10.1177/0731684411423119

Wright, M., 2006, “Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation of GRP Pipes – Sure2GriP – Quality Assurance and Structural Evaluation of GRP Pipes Horizontal Research Activities Involving SMEs Co-operative Research Project Funded by the European Commission,” ECNDT 2006

Wysocka-Fotek, O., M. Maj, and W. Oliferuk, 2015, “Use of Pulsed IR Thermography for Determination of Size and Depth of Subsurface Defect Taking into Account the Shape of its Cross-Section Area,” Archives of Metallurgy and Materials, Vol. 60, https://doi.org/10.1515/amm-2015-0181

Yakovlev, E.V., K.I. Zaytsev, I.N. Fokina, V.E. Karasik, and S.O. Yurchenko, 2014, “Nondestructive Testing of Polymer Composite Materials Using THz Radiation,” Journal of Physics: Conferences Series, https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/486/1/012008

Zeng, Z., N. Tao, L. Feng, and C. Zhang, 2012, “Specified Value Based Defect Depth Prediction Using Pulsed Thermography,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 112, No. 2, https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4737784

 

Metrics
Usage Shares
Total Views
119 Page Views
Total Shares
0 Tweets
119
0 PDF Downloads
0
0 Facebook Shares
Total Usage
119