Article Article
Multiwave Total Focusing Method for Full-Matrix Imaging Using Ultrasonic Phased Array

The imaging range of the traditional total focusing method (TFM) is usually limited by the directivity of excitation of a single wave pattern. In this paper, a multiwave TFM technique is proposed, which uses both compression and shear vertical (SV) waves for detection and imaging simultaneously. Based on this technique, a special ultrasonic transducer for multiwave detection is designed that can balance the excitation amplitude of compression and SV waves. Multiwave TFM uses the compression and SV wave fields generated by the same excitation, and the signals reflected by the two sound fields passing through the discontinuity are received. The signals are respectively processed by TFM according to the compression and SV wave velocities. The two processed signals are shifted and aligned according to the time difference between the compression wave with SV wave propagation, and then added together. Finally, the detection image of the block is obtained. Through simulation and experiments, it is shown that the special transducer can optimize the imaging range and effect of multiwave TFM, and multiwave TFM can effectively detect discontinuities and reduce the rate of missed detection at higher steering angles. The detection results show that the maximum amplitude gain of multiwave TFM relative to TFM can be increased about 6 dB.



Auld, B.A., 1982, Acoustic Field and Waves in Solids, translated by X.R. Yang, Beijing (BJ): Science Press

Dai, Y.-X., S.-G. Yan, and B.-X. Zhang, 2020, “Ultrasonic Beam Focusing Characteristics of Shear-Vertical Waves for Contact-Type Linear Phased Array in Solid,” Chinese Physics B, Vol. 29, No. 3,

Drinkwater, B.W., and P.D. Wilcox, 2006, “Ultrasonic Arrays for Non-Destructive Evaluation: A Review,” NDT & E International, Vol. 39, No. 7, pp. 525–541,

Holmes, C., B. Drinkwater, and P. Wilcox, 2004, “The Post-Processing of Ultrasonic Array Data Using the Total Focusing Method,” Insight, Vol. 46, No. 11, pp. 677–680(4),

Holmes, C., B.W. Drinkwater, and P.D. Wilcox, 2005, “Post-Processing of the Full Matrix of Ultrasonic Transmit–Receive Array Data for Non-Destructive Evaluation,” NDT & E International, Vol. 38, No. 8, pp. 701–711,

Hunter, A.J., B.W. Drinkwater, and P.D. Wilcox, 2008, “The Wavenumber Algorithm for Full-Matrix Imaging Using an Ultrasonic Array,” IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, Vol. 55, No. 11, pp. 2450–2462,

Jin, S., C. Wang, S. Liu, and L. Lin, 2018, “Simulation on Qualitative Detection of Defects with Multi-Mode Total Focusing Method,” 2018 IEEE Far East NDT New Technology & Application Forum (FENDT),

Miller, G.F., and H. Pursey, 1954, “The Field and Radiation Impedance of Mechanical Radiators on the Free Surface of a Semi-Infinite Isotropic Solid,” Proceedings of the Royal Society A, Vol. 223, No. 1155,

Schafer, M.E., and P.A. Lewin, 1989, “Transducer Characterization Using the Angular Spectrum Method,” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 85, No. 5,

Wilcox, P.D., C. Holmes, and B.W. Drinkwater, 2007, “Advanced Reflector Characterization with Ultrasonic Phased Arrays in NDE Applications,” IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, Vol. 54, No. 8,

Wooh, S.-C., and Q. Zhou, 2001, “Behavior of Laser-Induced Ultrasonic Waves Radiated from a Wet Surface. Part I. Theory,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 89, No. 6,

Wooh, S.-C., and Y. Shi, 1998, “Influence of Phased Array Element Size on Beam Steering Behavior,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 36, No. 6, pp. 737–749,

Wooh, S.-C., and Y. Shi, 1999, “Optimum Beam Steering of Linear Phased Arrays,” Wave Motion, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 245–265, /10.1016/s0165-2125(98)00039-0

Wooh, S.-C., Q. Zhou, and J. Wang, 2003, “Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Ultrasonic Waves Radiated from a Wet Surface Using a Line-Focused Laser Beam,” Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 43, pp. 450–459,

Yan, S., and B. Zhang, 2018, “Ultrasonic Multi-Wave Focusing and Acoustical Polarization Direction Control,” Journal of Applied Acoustics, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 63–39, -310X.2018.01.009

Zhang, B.-X., D.-D. Liu, F.-F. Shi, and H. Dong, 2013, “Ultrasonic Focusing and Scanning with Multiple Waves,” Chinese Physics B, Vol. 22, No. 1,

Zhang, J., B.W. Drinkwater, P.D. Wilcox, and A.J. Hunter, 2010, “Defect Detection Using Ultrasonic Arrays: The Multi-Mode Total Focusing Method,” NDT & E International, Vol. 43, No. 2, pp. 123–133,

Zhang, P., S.-G. Yan, J. Huang, and B.-X. Zhang, 2019, “Research on Detection of Weld Defects with Multi-Wave Total Focusing Method,” 2019 14th Symposium on Piezoelectricity, Acoustic Waves and Device Applications (SPAWDA), pp. 1–5,

Zhou, Z., D. Peng, Y. Li, and H. Hu, 2015, “Research on Phased Array Ultrasonic Total Focusing Method and Its Calibration,” Journal of Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 51, No. 10, (in Chinese)

Zhou, Z., Y. Li, and W. Zhou, 2016, “Ultrasonic Phased Array Post-Processing Imaging Techniques: A Review,” Journal of Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 52, No. 6, pp.1–11, (in Chinese)


Usage Shares
Total Views
291 Page Views
Total Shares
0 Tweets
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares
Total Usage