Article Article
Limitations of Sonic Echo Testing on Buried Piles of Unknown Bridge Foundations

Nondestructive Sonic Echo (SE) field tests have shown that this method does not have a satisfactory performance in determining the depth of piles fully buried underneath pile caps. In the current study, we endeavored to investigate the possibility of improving SE methodology to obtain interpretable results leading to determining the depth of buried piles in such foundations. The results obtained from the investigated numerical models indicated that the location of the pile toe could be determined when the height of the pile cap is less than 1 m. However, this value is questionable since it has been concluded in the absence of surrounding soil damping. In real bridge foundations with surrounding soils, the SE method may only be able to detect the length of a pile located beneath a cap with a height significantly smaller than 1 m. In summary, our simplified models show that the SE test is not a proper method to determine the length of fully buried piles supporting caps due to the limitations and difficulties discussed in the article.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09349847.2021.1877857

References

A. M. Shirole and R. C. Holt, Transp. Res. Rec. 1290, 39 (1991).

L. Deng and C. S. Cai, Pract. Period. Struct. Des. Constr. 15, 125 (2009). DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)SC.1943-5576.0000041.

J. T. Coe et al., Application of Non-Destructive Testing to Evaluate Unknown Foundations for Pennsylvania Bridges (Pennsylvania Department of Transportation, Bureau of Planning and Research, Harrisburg, 2013).

L. Olson, F. Jalinoos, and M. F. Aouad, Determination of unknown subsurface bridge foundations: a summary of the NCHRP 21–5 interim report.Geotechnical Engineering Notebook, Geotechnical Guideline No. 16, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, DC. (1998).

J. L. Briaud et al., Unknown Foundation Determination for Scour (Texas Transportation Institute, San Antonio, 2012).

H. Y. Chai and K. K. Phoon, Int. J. Geomech. 13, 672 (2012). DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)GM.1943-5622.0000233.

S. Rashidyan, A. Maji, and T. Ng, J. Perform. Constr. Facil. 33, 06019001 (2019). DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)CF.1943-5509.0001288.

S. Rashidyan, T. Ng, and A. Maji, J. Nondestr. Eval. 38 (1) (2019). DOI: 10.1007/s10921-019-0557-x.

F. Rausche and G. G. Goble, Behavior of Deep Foundations (ASTM International, West

Conshohocken, PA, 1979).

A. J. Weltman, Integrity Testing of Piles: A Review (Construction Industry Research and Information Association, London, UK, 1977).

Y. H. Huang et al., Comput. Geotech. 37, 757 (2010). DOI: 10.1016/j.compgeo.2010.06.002.

S. H. Ni et al., Comput. Geotech. 35, 600 (2008). DOI: 10.1016/j.compgeo.2007.09.003.

S. H. Ni et al., Comput . Geotech. 33, 283 (2006). DOI: 10.1016/j.compgeo.2006.08.001.

S. Rashidyan, T. Ng, and A. Maji, in Experimental and Applied Mechanics, Volume 4, edited by C. Sciammarella, J. Considine, and P. Gloeckner (Springer International Publishing, Springer, Cham, Switzerland, 2016), pp. 99–106.

K. F. Lo, S. H. Ni, and Y. H. Huang, Nonlinear Dyn. 62, 349 (2010). DOI: 10.1007/s11071-010-9721-7.

B. Hertlein and A. Davis, Nondestructive Testing of Deep Foundations (Wiley, New York, 2007).

ASTM C1383-15, Standard Test Method for Measuring the P-Wave Speed and the Thickness of Concrete Plates Using the Impact-Echo Method (ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2018).

ASTM D5882-16, Standard Test Method for Low Strain Impact Integrity Testing of Deep Foundations (ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, 2016).

M. S. Hossain et al., J. Perform. Constr. Facil. 27, 209 (2011). DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)CF.1943-5509.0000268.

A. Davis, Transp. Res. Rec.. 1633, 108 (1998).

S. McLemore et al., Federal Highway Administration & Florida Department of Transportation (Tallahassee, FL, 2010).

L. D. Olson and M. F. Aouad, Unknown Subsurface Bridge Foundation Testing (Olson Engineering, Incorporated, Wheat Ridge, Colorado, 2001).

B. H. Hertlein and W. H. Walton, Contemporary Issues in Deep Foundations (American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE), Reston, VA, 2007), 1–10

D. S. Kim and H. W. Kim, KSCE J. Civ. Eng. 7, 755 (2003).

J. Lai, S. T. Yang, and T. S. Chang, Int. J. Appl. Sci. Eng. 10, 145 (2012).

S. Rashidyan, T. Ng, and A. Maji, J. Nondestr. Eval. 36, 56 (2017). DOI: 10.1007/s10921-017-0433-5.

Y. Lin, M. Sansalone, and N. J. Carino, Geotech. Test. J. 14, 121 (1991). DOI: 10.1520/GTJ10554J.

N. J. Carino, M. Sansalone, and N. N. Hsu, Int. Adv. Nondestr. Test. 12, 117 (1986).

 

Metrics
Usage Shares
Total Views
17 Page Views
Total Shares
0 Tweets
17
0 PDF Downloads
0
0 Facebook Shares
Total Usage
17