The interaction of heat and moisture with fiber-reinforced polymer composites over a long duration is known to cause physical and mechanical degradation. In this paper, an attempt was made to evaluate physical and mechanical changes in carbon fiber–reinforced polymer (CFRP) by an unconventional nondestructive approach before and after varied duration of exposures to hygrothermal (HT) treatment at an elevated temperature (80 °C/353 K) up to 800 h. As a novel approach, laser-induced thermoelastic waves were utilized for characterization of the material. Wave characteristics, such as wave amplitude and velocity of propagation, were studied over different duration exposures of HT treatment to detect and quantify HT-induced property changes in the material. Results show that the aging effect attenuated the wave to a factor of 2.75 and significantly reduced the velocity of wave propagation by 20% compared to that of the pristine material, revealing the degradation in the material caused by HT exposure. The proposed methodology has the potential to monitor the health of fiber-reinforced polymer composite structures that have undergone hygrothermal aging.
Angulo, A., J. Allwright, C. Mares, T.-H. Gan, and S. Soua, 2017, “Finite Element Analysis of Crack Growth for Structural Health Monitoring of Mooring Chains Using Ultrasonic Guided Waves and Acoustic Emission,” Procedia Structural Integrity, Vol. 5, pp. 217–224, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prostr.2017.07.119.
ASTM, 2016, ASTM D2344/D2344M-16: Standard Test Method for Short-Beam Strength of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials and Their Laminates, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Choi, Y., S. Haider Abbas, and J.-R. Lee, 2018, “Aircraft Integrated Structural Health Monitoring using Lasers, Piezoelectricity, and Fiber Optics,” Measurement, Vol. 125, pp. 294–302, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measure ment.2018.04.067.
Cysne Barbosa, A.P., A.P.P. Fulco, E.S.S. Guerra, F.K. Arakaki, M. Tosatto, M.C.B. Costa, and J.D.D. Melo, 2017, “Accelerated Aging Effects on Carbon Fiber/Epoxy Composites,” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 110, pp. 298–306, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2016.11.004.
El Guerjouma, R., J.-C. Baboux, D. Ducret, N. Godin, P. Guy, S. Huguet, Y. Jayet, and T. Monnier, 2001, “Non-Destructive Evaluation of Damage and Failure of Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites Using Ultrasonic Waves and Acoustic Emission,” Advanced Engineering Materials, Vol. 3, No. 8, p. 601–608, https://doi.org/10.1002/1527-2648(200108)3:8%3C601::AID-ADEM601%3E3.0.CO;2-9.
Fakih, M. A., S. Mustapha, M.M. Alamdari, and L. Ye, 2017, “Symbolic Dynamics Time Series Analysis for Assessment of Barely Visible Indentation Damage in Composite Sandwich Structures Based on Guided Waves,” Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 5, No. 29, pp. 4129–4143, https://doi.org/10.1177/0021998317696138.
Gagar, D., M. Martinez, and P. Foote, 2014, “Development of Generic Methodology for Designing a Structural Health Monitoring Installation Based on the Acoustic Emission Technique,” Procedia CIRP, Vol. 22, pp. 103–108, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procir.2014.07.122.
Hong, G., A. Yalizis, and G.N. Frantziskonis, 1995, “Hygrothermal Degradation in Glass/Epoxy – Evaluation via Stress Wave Factors,” Composite Structures, Vol. 30, No. 4, pp. 407–417, https://doi.org/10.1016/0263-8223(94)00063-8.
Katunin, A., K. Dragan, and M. Dziendzikowski, 2015, “Damage Identification in Aircraft Composite Structures: A Case Study Using Various Non-destructive Testing Techniques,” Composite Structures, Vol. 127, pp. 1–9, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2015.02.080.
Korkees, F., C. Arnold, and S. Alston, 2018, “An Investigation of the Long-Term Water Uptake Behavior and Mechanisms of Carbon Fiber/977-2 Epoxy Composites,” Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol. 58, No. 12, pp. 2175–2184, https://doi.org/10.1002/pen.24830.
Lyamshev, L.M., 1981, “Optoacoustic Sources of Sound,” Soviet Physics Uspekhi, Vol. 24, pp. 977–995, https://doi.org/10.1070/PU1981v024 n12ABEH004757.
Mouritz, A.P., C. Townsend, and M.Z. Shah Khan, 2000, “Non-Destructive Detection of Fatigue Damage in Thick Composites by Pulse-Echo Ultra-sonics,” Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 60, No. 1, pp. 23–32, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0266-3538(99)00094-9.
Moy, P., and F. E. Karasz, 1980, “Epoxy-Water Interactions,” Polymer Engineering and Science, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 315–319, https://doi.org/ 10.1002/pen.760200417.
Mustapha, S., L. Ye, X. Dong, and M.M. Alamdari, 2016, “Evaluation of Barely Visible Indentation Damage (BVID) in CF/EP Sandwich Compos-ites using Guided Wave Signals,” Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Vols. 76–77, pp. 497–517, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymssp.2016.01.023.
Nogueira, P., C. Ramirez, A. Torres, M.J. Abad, J. Cano, J. Lopez, I. Lopez-Bueno, and L. Barral, 2001, “Effect of Water Sorption on the Structure and Mechanical Properties of an Epoxy Resin System,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 80, No. 1, pp. 71–80, https://doi.org/10.1002/ 1097-4628(20010404)80:1<71::AID-APP1077>3.0.CO;2-H.
Park, B., Y.-K. An, and H. Sohn, 2014, “Visualization of Hidden Delamina-tion and Debonding in Composites through Noncontact Laser Ultrasonic Scanning,” Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 100, pp. 10–18, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compscitech.2014.05.029.
Park, J.-W., D.-J. Kim, K.-H. Im, S.-K. Park, D.K. Hsu, A.H. Kite, S.-K. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and I.-Y. Yang, 2008, “Ultrasonic Influence of Porosity Level on CFRP Composite Laminates Using Rayleigh Probe Waves,” Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 298–307, https://doi.org/10.1007/s10338-008-0834-1.
Sun, P., Y. Zhao, Y. Luo, and L. Sun, 2011, “Effect of Temperature and Cyclic Hygrothermal Aging on the Interlaminar Shear Strength of Carbon Fiber/Bismaleimide (BMI) Composite,” Materials and Design, Vol. 32, No. 8–9, pp. 4341–4347, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matdes.2011.04.007.
Wang, X., and X. Xu, 2001, “Thermoelastic Wave Induced by Pulsed Laser Heating,” Applied Physics A, Vol. 73, pp. 107–114, https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s003390000593.
Xiao, G.Z., and M. E. R. Shanahan, 1998, “Irreversible Effects of Hygrothermal Aging on DGEBA/DDA Epoxy Resin,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 69, No. 2, pp. 363–369, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4628(19980711)69:2%3C363::AID-APP18%3E3.0.CO;2-X.
Xiao, G.Z., M. Delamar, and M.E.R. Shanahan, 1997, “Irreversible Interac-tions between Water and DGEBA/DDA Epoxy Resin during Hygrothermal Aging,” Journal of Applied Polymer Science, Vol. 65, No. 3, pp. 449–458, https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-4628(19970718) 65:3%3C449::AID-APP4%3E3.0.CO;2-H.
Zhou, J., and J.P. Lucas, 1999, “Hygrothermal Effects of Epoxy Resin, Part I: The Nature of Water in Epoxy,” Polymer, Vol. 40, No. 20, pp. 5505–5512, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-3861(98)00790-3.
129 Page Views
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares