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Detection of Planar Defects in Multilayered GFRP Composite Structures Using Low-Field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance

Adhesively bonded interfaces of glass fiber– reinforced plastics (GFRP) composite to rubber and rubber to propellant were investigated for planar interfacial defects with a spatial resolution of 100 μm. Single-sided low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with a magnetic field strength of 0.3 T (12.88 MHz proton frequency) has been used for noninvasive inspection of planar defects in GFRP-based multilayered composite structures. Further, in this paper, the application of low-field NMR for adhesive liner thickness measurement is also demonstrated. The investigation revealed applicability of single-sided low-field NMR for onsite field applications. Results were compared with other nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques: acousto-ultrasonic and radiographic testing (RT). It is observed that single-sided low-field NMR is an excellent NDE tool to study adhesive bonds and defects such as debonding, variations in thickness to accuracies ranging from 50 to 200 μm, and degradation. In comparison with the acousto-ultrasonic technique and RT, single-sided low-field NMR is observed to be more sensitive.



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