Article Article
Damage Characterization in Glass/Epoxy Composite Laminates under Normal and Oblique Planes of Cyclic Indentation Loading with AE Monitoring

This work focuses on the experimental investigation of indentation damage resistance in different stacking sequences of glass/epoxy composite laminates under cyclic loading on normal (0°) and oblique (20°) planes. The stacking sequence, such as unidirectional [0]12, angle ply [±45]6S, and cross ply [0/90]6S, were subjected to cyclic indentation loading and monitoring by acoustic emission testing (AE). The laminates were loaded at the center using a hemispherical steel indenter with a 12.7 mm diameter. The cyclic indentation loading was performed at displacements from 0.5 to 3 mm with an increment of 0.5 mm in each cycle. Subsequently, the residual compressive strength of the post-indented laminates was estimated by testing them under in-plane loading, once again with AE monitoring. Mechanical responses such as peak load, absorbed energy, stiffness, residual dent, and damage area were used for the quantification of the indentation-induced damage. The normalized AE cumulative counts, AE energy, and Felicity ratio were used for monitoring the damage initiation and propagation. Moreover, the discrete wavelet analysis of acoustic emission signals and fast Fourier transform enabled the calculation of the peak frequency content of each damage mechanism. The results showed that the cross-ply laminates had superior indentation damage resistance over angle ply and unidirectional (UD) laminates under normal and oblique planes of cyclic loading. However, the conclusion from the results was that UD laminates showed a better reduction in residual compressive strength than the other laminate configurations.



Abi Abdallah, E., C. Bouvet, S. Rivallant, B. Broll, and J.-J.Barrau, 2009, “Experimental Analysis of Damage Creation and Permanent Indentation on Highly Oriented Plates,” Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 69, Nos. 7–8, pp. 1238–1245,

Abrate, S., 1998, Impact on Composite Structures, Cambridge University Press,

Aggelis, D.G., N.-M. Barkoula, T.E. Matikas, and A.S. Paipetis, 2013, “Acoustic Emission as a Tool for Damage Identification and Characteriza-tion in Glass Reinforced Cross Ply Laminates,” Applied Composite Mate-rials, Vol. 20, pp. 489–503,

Antonucci, V., M.R. Ricciardi, F. Caputo, A. Langella, V. Lopresto, A. Riccio, and M. Zarrelli, 2014, “Low Velocity Impact Response of Carbon Fibre Laminates Made by Pulsed Infusion,” Procedia Engineering, Vol. 88, pp. 230–234,

Arumugam, V., A. Adhithya Plato Sidharth, and C. Santulli, 2014, “Failure Modes Characterization of Impacted Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics Laminates Under Compression Loading Using Acoustic Emission,” Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 48, No. 28, pp. 3457–3468,

Arumugam, V., C. Kumar, C. Santulli, F. Sarasini, and A. Stanley, 2011, “A Global Method for the Identification of Failure Modes in Fiberglass Using Acoustic Emission,” Journal of Testing and Evaluation, Vol. 39, No. 5, pp. 954–966, 

ASTM, 2017, D6264/D6264M-17: Standard Test Method for Measuring the Damage Resistance of a Fiber-Reinforced Polymer-Matrix Composite to a Concentrated Quasi-Static Indentation Force, West Conshohocken, PA.

ASTM, 2020, D7137/D7137M: Standard Test Method for Compressive Residual Strength Properties of Damaged Polymer Matrix Composite Plates, West Conshohocken, PA.

Baker, A.A., R. Jones, and R.J. Callinan, 1985, “Damage Tolerance of Graphite/Epoxy Composites,” Composite Structures, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 15–44,

Camus, G., L. Guillaumat, and S. Baste, 1996, “Development of Damage in a 2D Woven C/SiC Composite Under Mechanical Loading: I. Mechanical Characterization,” Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 56, No. 12, pp. 1363–1372,

Caprino, G., and V. Lopresto, 2000, “Factors Affecting the Penetration Energy of Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastics Subjected to a Concentrated Transverse Load,” Proceeding of European Conference on Composite Mate-rials (ECCM9), pp. 4–7.

Caprino, G., and V. Lopresto, 2001, “On the Penetration Energy for Fibre-Reinforced Plastics Under Low-Velocity Impact Conditions,” Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 61, No. 1, pp. 65–73,

Chelliah, S.K., P. Parameswaran, S. Ramasamy, A. Vellayaraj, and S. Subramanian, 2019a, “Optimization of Acoustic Emission Parameters to Discriminate Failure Modes in Glass-Epoxy Composite Laminates Using Pattern Recognition,” Structural Health Monitoring, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 1253–1267,

Chelliah, S.K., S.K. Kannivel, and A. Vellayaraj, 2019b, “Characterization of Failure Mechanism in Glass, Carbon and their Hybrid Composite Lami-nates in Epoxy Resin by Acoustic Emission Monitoring,” Nondestructive Testing Evaluation, Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 254–266, /10589759.2019.1590829.

Colombo, S., M.C. Forde, I.G. Main, and M. Shigeishi, 2005, “Predicting the Ultimate Bending Capacity of Concrete Beams from the ‘Relaxation Ratio’ Analysis of AE Signals,” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 19, No. 10, pp. 746–754,

Davies, G.A.O., and X. Zhang, 1995, “Impact Damage Prediction in Carbon Composite Structures,” International Journal of Impact Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 149–170,

de Freitas, M., and L. Reis, 1998, “Failure Mechanisms on Composite Specimens Subjected to Compression After Impact,” Composite Structures, Vol. 42, No. 4, pp. 365–373,

Fotouhi, M., and M.A. Najafabadi, 2016, “Acoustic Emission-Based Study to Characterize the Initiation of Delamination in Composite Materials,” Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 519–537,

Hachemane, B., R. Zitoune, B. Bezzazi, and C. Bouvet, 2013, “Sandwich Composites Impact and Indentation Behaviour Study,” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 51, pp. 1–10,

Jac Fredo, A., R. Abilash, R. Femi, N. Sri Madhava Raja, and C. Suresh Kumar, 2019a, “Characterization of Global and Local Damages in Composite Images Using Geometrical and Fourier-Hu Moment-Based Shape Descriptors,” Journal of Testing and Evaluation; Vol. 49,

Jac Fredo, A.R., R.S. Abilash, R. Femi, A. Mythili, C. Suresh Kumar, 2019b, “Classification of Damages in Composite Images Using Zernike Moments and Support Vector Machines,” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 168, pp. 77–86,

Jayababu, A., V. Arumugam, B. Rajesh, and C. Suresh Kumar, 2020, “Inves-tigation of Indentation Damage Resistance on Normal and Inclined Plane of Glass/Epoxy Composite Laminates Using Acoustic Emission Monitoring,” Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 54, No. 21, pp. 2953–2964,

Kaczmarek, H., and S. Maison, 1994, “Comparative Ultrasonic Analysis of Damage in CFRP Under Static Indentation and Low-Velocity Impact,” Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 51, No. 1, pp. 11–26,

Kim, S.-W., M.-C. Cha, I. Lee, E.-H. Kim, I.-B. Kwon, and T.-K. Hwang, 2014, “Damage Evaluation and Strain Monitoring of Composite Plate Using Metal-Coated FBG Sensors Under Quasi-static Indentation,” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 66, pp. 36–45,

Kumar, C.S., V. Arumugam, S. Sajith, H.N. Dhakal, and R. John, 2015, “Acoustic Emission Characterisation of Failure Modes in Hemp/Epoxy and Glass/Epoxy Composite Laminates,” Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 34,

Kwon, Y., and B. Sankar, 1993, “Indentation-Flexure and Low-Velocity Impact Damage in Graphite Epoxy Laminates,” Journal of Composites, Tech-nology and Research, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 101–111, 

Lankford, J., W.W. Predebon, J.M. Staehler, G. Subhash, B.J. Pletka, and C.E. Anderson, 1998, “The Role of Plasticity as a Limiting Factor in the Compressive Failure of High Strength Ceramics,” Mechanics of Materials, Vol. 29, Nos. 3–4, pp. 205–218, (98)00023-4.

Lavrov, A., 2001, “Kaiser Effect Observation in Brittle Rock Cyclically Loaded with Different Loading Rates,” Mechanics of Materials, Vol. 33, No. 11, pp. 669–677,

Lee, S.M., and P. Zahuta, 1991, “Instrumented Impact and Static Indentation of Composites,” Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 25, No. 2, pp. 204–222,

Li, Y., A. Xuefeng, and Y. Xiaosu, 2012, “Comparison with Low-Velocity Impact and Quasi-static Indentation Testing of Foam Core Sandwich Composites,” International Journal of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp. 58–62,

Lovejoy, S.C., 2008, “Acoustic Emission Testing of Beams to Simulate SHM of Vintage Reinforced Concrete Deck Girder Highway Bridges,” Structural Health Monitoring, Vol. 7, No. 4, pp. 329–346.

Maillet, E., N. Godin, M. R’Mili, P. Reynaud, J. Lamon, and G. Fantozzi, 2012, “Analysis of Acoustic Emission Energy Release During Static Fatigue Tests at Intermediate Temperatures on Ceramic Matrix Composites: Towards Rupture Time Prediction,” Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 72, No. 9, pp. 1001–1007,

Mei, H., 2008, “Measurement and Calculation of Thermal Residual Stress in Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites,” Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 68, Nos. 15–16, pp. 3285–3292, /j.compscitech.2008.08.015.

Mei, H., Y. Sun, L. Zhang, H. Wang, and L. Cheng, 2013, “Acoustic Emission Characterization of Fracture Toughness for Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites,” Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 560, pp. 372–376,

Minak, G., S. Abrate, D. Ghelli, R. Panciroli, and A. Zucchelli, 2010, “Low-Velocity Impact on Carbon/Epoxy Tubes Subjected to Torque-Experimental Results, Analytical Models and FEM Analysis,” Composite Structures, Vol. 92, No. 3, pp. 623–632,

Mix, P.E., 2005, Introduction to Nondestructive Testing: A Training Guide, second edition, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.

Mustapha, S., L. Ye, X. Dong, and M.M. Alamdari, 2016, “Evaluation of Barely Visible Indentation Damage (BVID) in CF/EP Sandwich Compos-ites Using Guided Wave Signals,” Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Vols. 76–77, pp. 497–517, 

Philippidis, T.P., V.N. Nikolaidis, and A.A. Anastassopoulos, 1998, “Damage Characterization of Carbon/Carbon Laminates Using Neural Network Techniques on AE Signals,” NDT&E International, Vol. 31, No. 5, pp. 329–340,

Saravanakumar, K., C. Suresh Kumar, and V. Arumugam, 2020, “Damage Monitoring of Glass/Epoxy Laminates with Different Interply Fiber Orien-tation Using Acoustic Emission,” Structural Health Monitoring,

Sjoblom, P.O., T.J. Hartness, and T.M. Cordell, 1988, “On Low-Velocity Impact Testing of Composite Materials,” Journal of Composite Materials, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 30–52,

Suresh Kumar, C., V. Arumugam, and C. Santulli, 2017, “Characterization of Indentation Damage Resistance of Hybrid Composite Laminates Using Acoustic Emission Monitoring,” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 111, pp. 165–178,

Suresh Kumar, C., M. Fotouhi, M. Saeedifar, and V. Arumugam, 2019, “Acoustic Emission Based Investigation on the Effect of Temperature and Hybridization on Drop Weight Impact and Post-Impact Residual Strength of Hemp and Basalt Fibres Reinforced Polymer Composite Laminates,” Composites Part B, Vol. 173, .106962.

Suresh Kumar, C., V. Arumugam, R. Sengottuvelusamy, S. Srinivasan, and H.N. Dhakal, 2017, “Failure Strength Prediction of Glass/Epoxy Composite Laminates from Acoustic Emission Parameters Using Artificial Neural Network,” Applied Acoustics, Vol. 115, pp. 32–41, /10.1016/j.apacoust.2016.08.013.

Suresh Kumar, C., V. Arumugam, J.J. Kenned, R. Karthikeyan, and A.R. Jac Fredo, 2020, “Experimental Investigation on the Effect of Glass Fiber Orientation on Impact Damage Resistance Under Cyclic Indentation Loading Using AE Monitoring,” Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 408–426, .1684491.

Zhang, D., L. Ye, D. Wang, Y. Tang, S. Mustapha, and Y. Chen, 2012, “Assessment of Transverse Impact Damage in GF/EP Laminates of Conductive Nanoparticles Using Electrical Resistivity Tomography,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol. 43, No. 9, pp. 1587–1598,


Usage Shares
Total Views
262 Page Views
Total Shares
0 Tweets
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares
Total Usage