In the field of acoustic emission testing (AE), the response of the sensor to the release of energy due to metals deforming in alloys, used in pressure vessel manufacturing with controlled stress when they reach 60% of the yield stress, is well documented (Dunegan 1971; Pollock 1973; Spanner 1973; CARP 1987; Heiple and Carpenter 1987; Fowler 1992; ASTM 1999). However, the acoustic emission activity from other sources is not recognized by some practitioners in this field. The author, having conducted thousands of AE tests on different materials, has encountered several factors that influence the amplitude, energy, duration, and rise time of the waveform recorded by the AE sensor. This article explains some of the phenomena and how to better understand their effect on the acoustic emission signature. Both metals and composite materials are discussed. This article has been divided into two parts. The first part includes a basic description of the method and other important factors to be noted. The second part (to be published in July 2021) will discuss the influence of the various materials used in construction and their effects on the AE data.
ASME, 2019a, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section V: Nondestructive Examination, Article 11, Acoustic Emission Examination of Fiber Reinforced Plastic Vessels, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, NY.
ASME, 2019b, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section V: Nondestructive Examination, Article 12, Acoustic Emission Examination of Metallic Vessels, American Society of Mechanical Engineers, New York, NY.
ASTM, 1999, ASTM STP1353: Acoustic Emission: Standards and Technology Update, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
CARP, 1987, “Recommended Practice for Acoustic Emission Testing of Fiber Reinforced Plastic Resin (RP) Tanks/Vessels,” 37th Annual Conference, Reinforced Plastics/Composites Institute, The Society of Plastics Industry, New York, 1982, revised and reissued as a separate document with the same title, SPI Composites Institute.
Dunegan, H.L., 1971, Factors Affecting Acoustic Emission Response from Materials, American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA.
Fowler, T.J., J.A. Blessing, and T.L. Swanson, 1989, “MONPAC – An Acoustic Emission Based System for Evaluating the Structural Integrity of Metal Vessels,” World Meeting on Acoustic Emission, Charlotte, North Carolina.
Fowler, T.J., 1992, “Chemical Industry Applications of Acoustic Emission,” Materials Evaluation, Vol. 50, No. 7, pp. 875–882.
Heiple, C.R., and S.H. Carpenter, 1987, “Acoustic Emission Produced by Deformation of Metals and Alloys,” Journal of Acoustic Emission, Vol. 6, pp. 177–201.
Pollock, A.A., 1973, “Acoustic Emission – 2: Acoustic Emission Amplitudes,” Non-Destructive Testing, Vol. 6, No. 5, pp. 264–269, https://doi.org/10.1016/0029-1021(73)90074-1
Spanner, J.C., 1973, Acoustic Emission Techniques and Applications, Intex Publishing Co., Evanston, IL
93 Page Views
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares