Article Article
A Hybrid Microwave NDE System for Rapid Inspection of GFRP Composites

The last few decades have seen a significant increase in the use of composite materials in the aerospace, automotive, and civil industries, largely due to the advantages they offer in terms of low weight, corrosion resistance, and excellent thermo-mechanical properties. Appropriate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques that allow for rapid detection of damage and assessment of its severity in composites still remains an area of active research. There is a need for a reliable NDE system that can be used to rapidly inspect these structures and prevent catastrophic failure. High-frequency electromagnetic NDE techniques are well suited for low-loss dielectric materials because of the ability of the electromagnetic waves to interact with these materials. Glass fiber–reinforced polymers (GFRP) are inherently dielectric, thus facilitating the use of microwaves for their inspection. While far-field electromagnetic inspection systems have the capability of rapid, large-area inspection because of its large stand-off measurement capability, near-field techniques enable higher resolution and exact sizing of discontinuities. This paper presents ongoing work on the development of a novel, hybrid electromagnetic imaging system (HEMIS) for NDE of GFRP structures that combines benefits of both near-field and far-field inspection systems. The experimental systems and imaging algorithms characterizing the far-field and near-field systems are developed and discussed. Experimental imaging results for detecting practical, challenging damage modes in GFRP composites and metal composite joints demonstrate the efficiency of the system with novel capabilities, such as rapid, large-area inspection and subsurface high-resolution imaging. The fusion of the results from the two techniques provides a robust approach for NDE of composite materials.



Akuthota, B., D. Hughes, R. Zoughi, J. Myers, and A. Nanni, 2004, “Near-Field Microwave Detection of Disbond in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites Used for Strengthening Cement-Based Structures and Disbond Repair Verification,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 6, pp. 540–546.

Baker, A.A., L.R.F. Rose, and R. Jones (eds.), 2003, Advances in the Bonded Composite Repair of Metallic Aircraft Structure, Elsevier Science Ltd., Oxford, UK.

Bakhtiari, S., N.N. Qaddoumi, S.I. Ganchev, and R. Zoughi, 1994, “Microwave Noncontact Examination of Disbond and Thickness Variation in Stratified Composite Media,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 42, No. 3, pp. 389–395.

Banerjee, P., R.P. Palanisamy, M. Haq, L. Udpa, and Y. Deng, 2019, “Data-Driven Prognosis of Fatigue-Induced Delamination in Composites Using Optical and Acoustic NDE Methods,” 2019 IEEE International Conference on Prognostics and Health Management, pp. 1–10.

Bois, K.J., A.D. Benally, and R. Zoughi, 1999, “Multimode Solution for the Reflection Properties of an Open-Ended Rectangular Waveguide Radiating into a Dielectric Half-Space: The Forward and Inverse Problems,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 48, No. 6, pp. 1131–1140.

Bray, D.E., and R.K. Stanley, 1996, Nondestructive Evaluation: A Tool in Design, Manufacturing and Service, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Broquetas, A., J. Romeu, J.M. Rius, A.R. Elias-Fuste, A. Cardama, and L. Jofre, 1991, “Cylindrical Geometry: A Further Step in Active Microwave Tomography,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 39, No. 5, pp. 836–844.

Case, J.T., M.T. Ghasr, and R. Zoughi, 2011, “Optimum Two-Dimensional Uniform Spatial Sampling for Microwave SAR-based NDE Imaging Systems,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 60, No. 12, pp. 3806–3815.

Chamis, C.C., and J.H. Sinclair, 1982, “Durability/Life of Fiber Composites in Hygrothermomechanical Environments,” Composite Materials: Testing and Design (6th Conference), ed. I. Daniel, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.

Cheng, Y., Y. Deng, J. Cao, X. Xiong, L. Bai, and Z. Li, 2013, “Multi-wave and Hybrid Imaging Techniques: A New Direction for Nondestructive Testing and Structural Health Monitoring,” Sensors, Vol. 13, No. 12, pp. 16146–16190.

Chisum, J.D., and Z. Popovic, 2012, “Performance Limitations and Measurement Analysis of a Near-Field Microwave Microscope for Nondestructive and Subsurface Detection,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 60, No. 8, pp. 2605–2615.

Deng, Y., X. Liu, Y. Fan, Z. Zeng, L. Udpa, and W. Shih, 2006, “Characterization of Magneto-Optic Imaging Data for Aircraft Inspection,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 42, No. 10, pp. 3228–3230.

Eua-Anant, N., I. Elshafiey, L. Udpa, and J.N. Gray, 1996, “A Novel Image Processing Algorithm for Enhancing the Probability of Detection of Flaws in X-ray Images,” Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, pp. 903–910.

Ghasr, M.T., D. Simms, and R. Zoughi, 2009, “Multimodal Solution for a Waveguide Radiating into Multilayered Structures – Dielectric Property and Thickness Evaluation,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 58, No. 5, pp. 1505–1513.

Ghasr, M.T., M.A. Abou-Khousa, S. Kharkovsky, R. Zoughi, and D. Pommerenke, 2011, “Portable Real-Time Microwave Camera at 24 GHz,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 60, No. 2, pp. 1114–1125.

Green, G.A., P. Campbell, and R. Zoughi, 2004, “An Investigation into the Potential of Microwave NDE for Maritime Application,” Proceedings of 16th World Conference of Non-Destructive Testing (WCDNT), Vol. 30, p. 8.

Grimberg, R., A. Savin, R. Steigmann, B. Serghiac, and A. Bruma, 2011, “Electromagnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation Using Metamaterials,” Insight: Nondestructive Testing and Condition Monitoring, Vol. 53, No. 3, pp. 132–137.

Harris, B., 2003, Fatigue in Composites: Science and Technology of the Fatigue Response of Fibre-Reinforced Plastics, Woodhead Publishing Ltd., Sawston, Cambridge.

Haq, M., A. Khomenko, L. Udpa, and S. Udpa, 2014, “Fiber Bragg-Grating Sensor Array for Health Monitoring of Bonded Composite Lap-Joints,” Experimental Mechanics of Composite, Hybrid, and Multifunctional Materials, Vol. 6, pp. 189–195, Springer, New York, NY.

Hoffmann, J., G. Gramse, J. Niegemann, M. Zeier, and F. Kienberger, 2014, “Measuring Low Loss Dielectric Substrates with Scanning Probe Microscopes,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 105, No. 1,

Jin, Y., and J.M.F. Moura, 2007, “TR-SAR: Time Reversal Target Focusing in Spotlight SAR,” Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing – ICASSP ’07, Vol. 2, pp. II–957.

Ju, Y., M. Saka, and H. Abé, 1999, “Microwave Nondestructive Detection of Delamination in IC Packages Utilizing Open-Ended Coaxial Line Sensor,” NDT & E International, Vol. 32, No. 5, pp. 259–264.

Kharkovsky, S., and R. Zoughi, 2007, “Microwave and Millimeter Wave Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation – Overview and Recent Advances,” IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 26–38.

Kline, R.A., 2017, Nondestructive Characterization of Composite Media, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Lerosey, G., J. de Rosny, A. Tourin, A. Derode, G. Montaldo, and M. Fink, 2004, “Time Reversal of Electromagnetic Waves,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 92, No. 19,

Lerosey, G., J. de Rosny, A. Tourin, and M. Fink, 2007, “Focusing Beyond the Diffraction Limit with Far-Field Time Reversal,” Science, Vol. 315, No. 5815, pp. 1120–1122.

Lopez-Sanchez, J.M., and J. Fortuny-Guasch, 2000, “3-D Radar Imaging Using Range Migration Techniques,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 48, No. 5, pp. 728–737.

Mukherjee, S., A. Tamburrino, M. Haq, S. Udpa, and L. Udpa, 2018, “Far Field Microwave NDE of Composite Structures Using Time Reversal Mirror,” NDT & E International, Vol. 93, pp. 7–17.

Mukherjee, S., L. Udpa, S. Udpa, and E. Rothwell, 2017, “Target Localization Using Microwave Time Reversal Mirror in Reflection Mode,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 65, No. 2, pp. 820–828.

Perry, R.P., R.C. Dipietro, and R.L. Fante, 1999, “SAR Imaging of Moving Targets,” IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 188–200.

Pilato, L.A., and M.J. Michno, 1994, Advanced Composite Materials, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.

Rothwell, E.J., and M.J. Cloud, 2008, Electromagnetics, 2nd ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

Sachse, W., B. Castagnede, I. Grabec, K.Y. Kim, and R.L. Weaver, 1990, “Recent Developments in Quantitative Ultrasonic NDE of Composites,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 28, No. 2, pp. 97–104.

Schilling, P.J., B.R. Karedla, A.K. Tatiparthi, M.A. Verges, and P.D. Herrington, 2005, “X-ray Computed Microtomography of Internal Damage in Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites,” Composites Science and Technology, Vol. 65, No. 14, pp. 2071–2078.

Semenov, S.Y., A.E. Bulyshev, A. Abubakar, V.G. Posukh, Y.E. Sizov, A.E. Souvorov, P.M. van den Berg, and T.C. Williams, 2005, “Microwave-Tomographic Imaging of the High Dielectric-Contrast Objects Using Different Image-Reconstruction Approaches,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 53, No. 7, pp. 2284–2294.

Sheen, D.M., D.L. McMakin, and T.E. Hall, 2001, “Three-Dimensional Millimeter-Wave Imaging for Concealed Weapon Detection,” IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques, Vol. 49, No. 9, pp. 1581–1592.

Shi, X., V.T. Rathod, S. Mukherjee, L. Udpa, and Y. Deng, 2020, “Multi-modality Strain Estimation Using a Rapid Near-field Microwave Imaging System for Dielectric Materials,” Measurement, Vol. 151, j.measurement.2019.107243.

Wagner, M., and G. Norris, 2009, Boeing 787 Dreamliner, Zenith Press, Minneapolis, MN.

Waldron, R.A., 1960, “Perturbation Theory of Resonant Cavities,” Proceedings of the IEE-Part C: Monographs, Vol. 107, No. 12, pp. 272–274.

Wei, T., X.-D. Xiang, W.G. Wallace-Freedman, and P.G. Schultz, 1996, “Scanning Tip Microwave Near-Field Microscope,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 68, No. 24, pp. 3506–3508.

Willis, J.R., 1981, “Variational and Related Methods for the Overall Properties of Composites,” Advances in Applied Mechanics, Vol. 21, pp. 1–78.

Xie, Y., X. Fan, Y. Chen, J.D. Wilson, R.N. Simons, and J.Q. Xiao, 2017, “A Subwavelength Resolution Microwave/6.3 GHz Camera Based on a Metamaterial Absorber,” Scientific Reports, Vol. 7,

Zoughi, R., 2000, Microwave Non-Destructive Testing and Evaluation Principles, Vol. 4, Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands.

Zoughi, R., J. Lai, and K.M. Munoz, 2002, “A Brief Review of Microwave Testing of Stratified Composite Structures: A Comparison between Plane Wave and Near Field Approaches,” Materials Evaluation, Vol. 60, No. 2, pp. 171–177.

Usage Shares
Total Views
497 Page Views
Total Shares
0 Tweets
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares
Total Usage