Article Article
Simulation and Sound Field Analysis on Ultrasonic Phased Array Test Based on the Finite Element Method

The finite element method (FEM) is adopted for analyzing the sound field and setting the testing parameters of one-dimensional linear phased array testing. First, FEM models with high accuracy and efficiency are achieved by optimizing the modeling parameters. Second, the influences of the focusing sound field, such as inter-element pitch, element width, and element combination, are revealed based on the models. Ultimately, the finite element model of the phased array testing is verified by the experiment, and then, the element combination for a block of superalloy GH901 is decided according to the simulation. The experimental results show that a better resolution and lower distortion of the testing image can be achieved as the result of the finite element models. The combination of fewer elements is good for near-surface resolution, but the number of the combined elements should be increased with the increase of the focus depth. Thus, the simulation model can be used to analyze the sound field of phased array testing, which is also helpful for guiding practical application.


ASTM, 2013, ASTM E2491-2013: Guide for Evaluating Performance Characteristics of Phased-Array Ultrasonic Examination Instruments and Systems, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.

Chatillon, S., G. Cattiaux, M. Serre, and O. Roy, 2000, “Ultrasonic Nondestructive Testing of Pieces of Complex Geometry with a Flexible Array Transducer,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 38, No. 1–8, pp. 131–134.

Drinkwater, Bruce W., and Paul D. Wilcox, 2006, “Ultrasonic Arrays for Non-destructive Evaluation: A Review,” NDT&E International, Vol. 39, No. 7, pp. 525–541.

Fortunato, J., C. Anand, D.F.O. Braga, R.M. Groves, P.M.G.P. Moreira, and V. Infante, 2017, “Friction stir weld-bonding defect inspection using phased array ultrasonic testing,” International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 93, No. 9–12, pp. 3125–3134.

Howard, P., R. Klaassen, N. Kurkcu, J. Barshinger, C. Chalek, E. Nieters, Z. Sun, and F. de Fromont, 2007, “Phased Array Ultrasonic Inspection of Titanium Forgings,” Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, Portland, OR, 30 July–4 August, AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 894, pp. 854–861.

Lowe, P.S., S. Fateri, R. Sanderson, and N. V. Boulgouris, 2014, “Finite Element Modelling of the Interaction of Ultrasonic Guided Waves with Coupled Piezoelectric Transducers,” Insight, Vol. 56, No. 9, pp. 505–509.

Mahaut, S., O. Roy, C. Beroni, and B. Rotter, 2002, “Development of Phased Array Techniques to Improve Characterization of Defect Located in a Component of Complex Geometry,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 40, No. 1–8, pp. 165–169.

Qi, W., and W. Cao, 2000, “Finite Element Study on 1-D Array Transducer Design,” IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonic, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control, Vol. 47, No. 4, pp. 949–955.

Satyanarayan, L., C. Sridhar, C.V. Krishnamurthy, and K. Balasubramaniam, 2007, “Simulation of Ultrasonic Phased Array Technique for Imaging and Sizing of Defects using Longitudinal Waves,” International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping,” Vol. 84, No. 12, pp. 716–729.

Satyanarayan, L., K.V. Mohan, C.V. Krishnamurthy, and K. Balasubramaniam, 2008, “Finite Difference Time Domain Simulation of Ultrasonic Phased Array Sector Scan for Imaging Cracks in Large Pipes, Elbows, and Tee Sections,” Research in Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 61–86.

Shi, K., 2007, Advanced Techniques NDT & E, Tsinghua University Press, Beijing, China.

Smith, R.A., J. M. Bending, L. D. Jones, and T.R.C. Jarman, 2003, “Rapid Ultrasonic Inspection of Ageing Aircraft,” Insight, Vol. 45, No. 3, pp. 174–177.

Song, S.J., H. J. Shin, and Y. H. Jang, 2000, “Calculations of Radiation Field of Phased Array Transducers Using Boundary Diffraction Wave Model,” in Proceedings of Roma 2000: 15th World Conference on Nondestructive Testing (WCNDT), 15–21 October, Rome, Italy.

Song, S.J., H.J. Shin, and Y.H. Jang, 2002, “Development of an Ultra Sonic Phased Array System for Nondestructive Tests of Nuclear Power Plant Components,” Nuclear Engineering and Design, Vol. 214, No. 1–2, pp. 151–161.

Wei, D., and Z. Zhou, 2010, “Finite Difference Simulation of Pulsed Ultrasonic Propagation in Solids,” Acta Aeronauticaet Astronautica Sinica, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 387–388.

Whittle, A.C., 2006, “Preliminary Steps to Validate a Beam Model for Ultrasonic Phased Arrays,” Insight, Vol. 48, No. 4, pp. 221–227.

Yan, L., 2011, “Specific Requirements for Evaluating Performance Characteristics of Phased-Array Ultrasonic Examination Instruments and Systems,” Nondestructive Inspection of China, Vol. 35, pp. 22–26.

Yuan, C., C. Xie, L. Li, and F. Zhang, 2016, “Ultrasonic Phased Array Detection of Internal Defects in Composite Insulators,” IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Vol. 23, No. 1, pp. 525–531.

Zhao, X., T. Gang, and B. Zhang, 2008, “Prediction of Radiation Beam Fields from an Array Transducer with Non Paraxial Multi-Gaussian Beam Model,” Acta Acustica (CHINA), Vol. 33, pp. 475–480.

Usage Shares
Total Views
268 Page Views
Total Shares
0 Tweets
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares
Total Usage