This paper discusses the use of electromagnetic field imaging (EMFI) technology for rolling contact damage (RCD) characterization on railroad rails. The novelty of the research presented is on the quantification of the RCD severity and surface breaking crack depth measurement. For this, a series of tests was conducted on several 141-RE rail samples with varying types of RCD defects using an EMFI flat sensor commonly used for pipeline applications. A carriage and a sensor mount were designed to allow the sensor to scan the entire length of the railhead. The orientation of the EMFI sensor used was manually adjusted at 4 mm (0.16 in.) increments to inspect the gage face, the gage corner, and the running surface of the test rails. The scanning resolution demonstrated for this proof-of-concept study was 1 mm (0.04 in.) at 1.6 km/h (1 mph). A liftoff study was also conducted to understand the effect of an air gap on detection and characterization performance. Measurements obtained on the running surface of the rails were used for the detailed analyses. Results demonstrate the feasibility of applying the EMFI technique for RCD characterization. Also, higher liftoff values showed inconsistent responses between rail samples using flat EMFI sensors. Lower liftoff values (2 mm and below) provided consistent severity responses. Finally, destructive tests were designed to determine actual RCD depth at a specific point in the test rails. It was observed that the RCD crack depths were all around 2 mm (0.08 in.), which were consistent with the EMFI severity measurements.
Alahakoon, S., Y.Q. Sun, M. Spiryagin, and C. Cole, 2018, “Rail Flaw Detection Technologies for Safer, Reliable Transportation: A Review,” Journal of Dynamic Systems, Measurement, and Control, Vol. 140, No. 2: 020801-020801-17.
Anis, M.A., J.P. Srivastava, N.R. Duhan, and P.K. Sarkar,, 2018, “Rolling Contact Fatigue and Wear in Rail Steels: An Overview,” IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 377, Conference 1, doi:10.1088/1757-899X/377/1/012098 .
Baillargeon, J.P., and H.M. Tournay, 2014, “Measurements Required to Manage Rolling Contact Fatigue,” AAR/TTCI Technology Digest TD-14-008.
Baillargeon, J.P., H.M. Tournay, and B. Kerchof, 2014, “Evaluation of an Eddy Current System for RCF Measurements,” AAR/TTCI Technology Digest TD-14-007.
Edwards, R.S., S. Dixon, and X. Jian, 2006, “Characterisation of Defects in the Railhead Using Ultrasonic Surface Waves,” NDT & E International, Vol. 39, No. 6, pp. 468–475.
Gao, Y., G.Y. Tian, P. Wang, H. Wang, B. Gao, W.L. Woo, and K. Li, 2017, “Electromagnetic Pulsed Thermography for Natural Cracks Inspection,” Scientific Reports 7, Article No. 42073, doi: 10.1038/srep42073.
Gies, P.D., 2012, “Inspection Apparatus and Method,” US Patent No. 8,274,279 B2, US Patent and Trademark Office, Washington, DC.
Hampton, D., E. Magel, and B. Harris, 2017, “Moving Towards Predictive Grinding,” Proceedings of 11th International Heavy Haul Association Conference, Cape Town, South Africa.
Joy, R., and H. Tournay, 2011, “Rolling Contact Fatigue Workshop,” DOT/FRA/ORD-12/08, Washington, DC.
Kerchof, B., 2015, “Validation of Rail Crack Measurement Devices on NS,” Proceedings of 21st Annual Wheel Rail Interaction Conference, Atlanta, USA.
Magel, E., 2011, “Rolling Contact Fatigue: A Comprehensive Review,” DOT/FRA/ORD-11/24, Washington, DC.
Magel, E., 2017, “An International Collaborative Research Initiative on RCF and Wear of Wheels and Rails,” Proceedings of 2nd Annual ICRI Workshop on RCF and Wear, Vancouver, Canada, available at http://www.icri-rcf.org/.
Mandayam, S., L. Udpa, S.S. Udpa, and W. Lord, 1996, “ Invariance Transformations for Magnetic Flux Leakage Signals,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 1577–1580.
Nicholson, G.L., A.G. Kostryzhev, X.J. Hao, and C.L. Davis, 2011, “Modelling and Experimental Measurements of Idealised and Light-moderate RCF Cracks in Rails Using an ACFM Sensor,” NDT & E International, Vol. 44, No. 5, pp. 427–437.
Papaelias, M., M.C. Lugg, C. Roberts, and C.L. Davis, 2009, “High-Speed Inspection of Rails Using ACFM Techniques,” NDT & E International, Vol. 42, No. 4, pp. 328–335.
Peng, J., G.Y. Tian, L. Wang, Y. Zhang, K. Li, and X. Gao, 2015, “Investigation into Eddy Current Pulsed Thermography for Rolling Contact Fatigue Detection and Characterization,” NDT & E International, Vol. 74, pp. 72–84.
Pohl, R., R. Krull, and R. Meierhofer, 2006, “A New Eddy Current Instrument in a Grinding Train,” Proceedings ECNDT, Berlin, Germany.
Shu, X., Y. Zeng, H. Tournay, D. Thielemier, A. Tajaddini, and B. Marquis, 2018, “Wheel/Rail Contact Modeling and Experimental Validation Using RCFS,” Proceedings 11th International Conference on Contact Mechanics and Wear of Rail/Wheel Systems, 24–27 September, Delft, The Netherlands, Delft University of Technology (TU Delft).
Szugs, T., A. Krüger, G. Jansen, B. Beltman, S. Gao, H. Mühmel, and R. Ahlbrink, 2016, “Combination of Ultrasonic and Eddy Current Testing with Imaging for Characterization of Rolling Contact Fatigue,” Proceedings 19th World Conference on Non-Destructive Testing, 13–17 June, Munich, Germany, International Committee for Non-Destructive Testing (ICNDT).
Wilson, J., G.Y. Tian, I. Mukriz, and D. Almond, 2011, “PEC Thermography for Imaging Multiple Cracks from Rolling Contact Fatigue,” NDT & E International, Vol. 44, No. 6, pp. 505–512.
Witte, M., A. Poudel, and S. Kalay, 2016, “Rail Flaw Characterization Using Phased Array Ultrasound,” Proceedings of 25th ASNT Research Symposium, New Orleans, LA, The American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Columbus, OH.
Witte, M., and A. Poudel, 2018, “Measuring Rolling Contact Damage in Rails Using EMFI,” AAR/TTCI Technology Digest TD 18-016.
Witte, M., A. Poudel, and G. Fry, 2018, “Rolling Contact Fatigue Measurement Using EMATs,” AAR/TTCI Technology Digest TD 18-004.
23 Page Views
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares