The use of composite materials made technological advances possible in biomedical and industrial areas. Polymeric matrices reinforced by glass fiber are the most common among the composite materials used for pipe manufacturing. However, they may present intrinsic issues due to important factors, such as nonuniformity and nonconformities related to reinforcement and matrix. Visual inspections can identify the characteristic fiber distortion discontinuities, surface bubbles, and dry areas of impregnation. To detect porosity, cracking, or delamination, other methods are required. This paper presents the technique of digital radiography for the inspection of composite materials. An amorphous silicon (a-Si) type flat panel detector, a constant potential X-ray source, and a software-controlled rotation table were used. Radiographs of two laminated joints of 4 in. (101.6 mm) glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) pipes were performed. As a result, delamination, debonding, cracking, and porosity discontinuities were detected, which could not be detected visually.
ASTM, 2014, ASTM E2597/E2597M - 14: Standard Practice for Manufacturing Characterization of Digital Detector Arrays, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA.
Chotas, H.G., J.T. Dobbins III, and C.E. Ravin, 1999, “Principles of Digital Radiography with Large-Area, Electronically Readable Detectors: A Review of the Basics,” Radiology, Vol. 210, No. 3, pp. 595–599.
Gholizadeh, S., 2016, “A Review of Non-Destructive Testing Methods of Composite Materials,” Procedia Structural Integrity, Vol. 1, pp. 50–57.
Hassen, A.A., H. Taheri, and U.K. Vaidya, 2016, “Non-Destructive Investigation of Thermoplastic Reinforced Composites,” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 97, pp. 244–254.
Khomenko, A., O. Karpenko, E. Koricho, M. Haq, G.L. Cloud, and L. Udpa, 2016, “Theory and Validation of Optical Transmission Scanning for Quantitative NDE Of Impact Damage in GFRP Composites,” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 107, pp. 182–191.
Khomenko, A., O. Karpenko, E.G. Koricho, M. Haq, G.L. Cloud, and L. Udpa, 2017, “Quantitative Comparison of Optical Transmission Scanning with Conventional Techniques for NDE of Impact Damage in GFRP Composites,” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 123, pp. 92–104.
Lança, L., and A. Silva, 2009, “Digital Radiography Detectors – A Technical Overview: Part 1,”Radiography, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 58–62.
Moreira, E.V., J.M. Barbosa Rabello, M.S. Pereira, R.T. Lopes, U. Zscherpel, 2010, “Digital Radiography Using Digital Detector Arrays Fulfills Critical Applications for Offshore Pipelines,” EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing, 894643, doi: 10.1155/2010/894643.
Rique, A.M., A.C. Machado, D.F. Oliveira, R.T. Lopes, and I. Lima, 2015, “X-Ray Imaging Inspection of Fiberglass Reinforced by Epoxy Composite,” Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, Vol. 349, pp. 184–191.
Rodríguez, E.S., V.A. Alvarez, and P.E. Montemartini, 2013, “Failure Analysis of a GFRP Pipe for Oil Transport,” Engineering Failure Analysis, Vol. 28, pp. 16–24.
Tan, K.T., N. Watanabe, and Y. Iwahori, 2011, “X-Ray Radiography and Micro-Computed Tomography Examination of Damage Characteristics in Stitched Composites Subjected to Impact Loading,” Composites Part B: Engineering, Vol. 42, No. 4, pp. 874–884.
Xin, H., Y. Liu, A.S. Mosallam, J. He, and A. Du,2017, “Evaluation on Material Behaviors of Pultruded Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Laminates,” Composite Structures, Vol. 182,pp. 283–300.
Yun, Y.M., M.W. Seo, H.W. Ra, G.H. Koo, J.S. Oh, S.J. Yoon, Y.K. Kim, J.G. Lee, and J.H. Kim, 2015, “Pyrolysis Characteristics of Glass Fiber-Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) under Isothermal Conditions,” Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, Vol. 114, pp. 40–46.
71 Page Views
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares