This study systematically determined the transmission and receiving sensitivities of over twenty transducers. Four types of sensitivities were evaluated for both transmission and receiving sensitivities. These are found to be different from each other and the reversibility or reciprocity conditions exist only in exceptional cases. Using their observed behavior as the basis, we critically examined the calibration methods developed to characterize them, including those based on laser interferometry and the acoustic reciprocity principle. Serious flaws in some of the reciprocity methods are uncovered, which can be rectified by using the Hill–Adams method. Four procedures emerged as workable calibration methods for contact ultrasonic and acoustic emission transducers. However, current experimental uncertainties limit the upper frequency to 2 MHz.
 ISO 12713: 1998(E), Non-destructive testing - Acoustic emission inspection - Primary calibration of transducers; ASTM E1106-12 Standard method for primary calibration of acoustic emission sensors, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, PA, USA, 12 p. (2016).
 Customer Services, National Physical Laboratory. Calibration of hydrophones and projectors. Middlesex, UK: Teddington. http://www.npl.co.uk/ultrasound-and-underwater-acoustics/underwater-acoustics/products-and-services/calibration-of-hydrophones-and-projectors Last updated on Mar. 25, 2010 (accessed Feb. 9, 2017).
 W. R. MacLean, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 12, 140–146 (1940). DOI: 10.1121/1.1916085.
 L. L. Foldy and H. Primakoff, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 17, 109–120 (1945). DOI: 10.1121/1.1916305.
 R. J. Bobber and J. Acoust, Soc. Amer. 39, 680 (1966).
 L. E. Kinsler, et al., Fundamentals of Acoustics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982).
 B. A. Auld, Acoustic Fields and Waves in Solids, 2nd ed. (Krieger Publishing Co., Malabar, FL, 1990), Vol. 1, 2.
 C. J. Dang, L. W. Schmerr, and A. Sedov, Res. Nondest. Eval. 14, 141, 177, 203 (2002). DOI: 10.1080/09349840209409714.
 L. W. Schmerr and S.-J. Song, Ultrasonic Nondestructive Evaluation Systems, Models and Measurements (Springer, New York, 2007).
 R. Hill and N. L. Adams, Acustica 43, 305–312 (1979).
 E. M. McMillan, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 18, 344 (1947). DOI: 10.1121/1.1916372.
 K. Ono, Materials 9, 508 (2016). DOI: 10.3390/ma9070508.
 H. Hatano and T. Watanabe, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 101, 1450 (1997). DOI: 10.1121/1.418170.
 H. Hatano, et al., IEEE Trans. UFFC 5 (45), 1221 (1998). DOI: 10.1109/58.726447.
 L. Goujon and J. C. Baboux, Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 903–908 (2003). DOI: 10.1088/0957-0233/14/7/302.
 J. Keprt and P. Benes, J. Acoust. Emiss. 26, 60 (2008).
 M. Redwood, J. Acoust. Soc. Amer. 33, 327 (1966).
 NDIS 2109-91, Method for Absolute Calibration of Acoustic Emission Transducers by Reciprocity Technique (The Japanese Society for Non-Destructive Inspection, Tokyo, Japan, 1991). This is also ISO-TR13115 (2011).
 C. Herve, et al., Proc. The 28th European Conf. on Acoustic Emission Testing, Cracow Univ. Tech., Krakow, Poland, pp. 1–11 (2008).
19 Page Views
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares