Article Article
Thermal Design of Hybrid Materials Produced via Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing

Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a technique for producing three-dimensional components through the metallurgical bonding of successive layers of metal foil. Due to its ability to process at low temperatures, UAM is uniquely suited for building hybrid materials. In this study, AA6061+water hybrid blocks with varying water cavity sizes were produced and their thermal performances were measured. Nonoptimal processing parameters were used to understand the interaction between interlayer porosity and thermal diffusivity of bulk material containing both solid and liquid. Flash thermography was used to characterize the spatial distribution of thermal diffusivity for each part. The average thermal diffusivity was successfully compared to a simplified thermal resistor model. The spatial variation in thermal properties was also correlated to specific interlayer features and related back to interactions between process characteristics and the component geometry.


Ashby, M.F., and Y.J.M. Bréchet, 2003, “Designing Hybrid Materials,” Acta Materiala, Vol. 51, No. 19, pp. 5801–5821.

Dehoff, R.R., and S.S. Babu, 2010, “Characterization of Interfacial Microstructures in 3003 Aluminum Alloy Blocks Fabricated by Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing,” Acta Materalia, Vol. 58, No. 13, pp. 4305–4315. 

Friel, R.J., and R.A. Harris, 2013, “Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing: A Hybrid Production Process for Novel Functional Products,” Procedia CIRP, Vol. 6, pp. 35–40. 

Gale, W.F., and T.C. Totemeier, 2004, Smithells Metals Reference Book, 8th ed., Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Hopkins, C.D., M.J. Dapino, and S.A. Fernandez, 2010, “Statistical Charac-terization of Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing Ti/Al Composites,” Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, Vol. 132, No. 4, p. 41006. 

Incropera, F.P., and D.P. Dewitt, 1996, Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer, 4th ed., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, NY.

Kong, C.Y., R.C. Soar, and P.M. Dickens, 2003, “Characterisation of Aluminum Alloy 6061 for the Ultrasonic Consolidation Process,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 363, Nos. 1 and 2, pp. 99–106. 

Kong, C.Y., R.C. Soar, and P.M. Dickens, 2004, “Optimum Process Parameters For Ultrasonic Consolidation of 3003 Aluminum,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 146, No. 2, pp. 181–187.

Parker, W.J., R.J. Jenkins, C.P. Butler, and G.L. Abbott, 1961, “Flash Method of Determining Thermal Diffusivity, Heat Capacity, and Thermal Conductivity,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 32, No. 9, pp. 1679–1684.

Parker, W.J., and R.J. Jenkins, 1962, “Thermal Conductivity Measurements on Bismuth Telluride in the Presence of a 2 MeV Electron Beam,” Advanced Energy Conversion, Vol. 2, pp. 87–103.

Savitzky, A., and J.E. Golay, 1964, “Smoothing and Differentiation of Data by Simplified Least Squares Procedures,” Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 36, No. 8, pp. 1627–1639.

Schick, D.E., R.M. Hahnlen, R. Dehoff, P. Collins, S.S. Babu, M.J. Dapino, and J.C. Lippold, 2010, “Microstructural Characterization of Bonding Interfaces in Aluminum 3003 Blocks Fabricated by Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing,” Welding Journal, Vol. 89, No. 5, pp. 105–115.

Sridharan, N., M. Gussev, R. Seibert, C. Parish, M. Norfolk, K. Terrani, and S.S. Babu, 2016, “Rationalization of Anisotropic Mechanical Properties of Al-6061 Fabricated Using Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing,” Acta Materiala, Vol. 117, pp. 228–237.

Sriraman, M.R, S.S. Babu, and M. Short, 2010, “Bonding Characteristics During Very High Power Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing of Copper,” Scripta Materalia, Vol. 62, No. 8, pp. 560–563.

Wróbel, G. and Z. Rdzawski, 2009, “Determination of Thermal Diffusivity of Carbon/Epoxy Composites With Different Fiber Content Using Tran-sient Thermography,” Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 518–525.

Usage Shares
Total Views
179 Page Views
Total Shares
0 Tweets
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares
Total Usage