The reliability of a new time of flight diffraction technique for finding horizontal planar discontinuities (H-TOFD) has been investigated using “â versus a” probability of detection (POD) evaluation. A finite element model (FEM) was developed to simulate the ultrasonic response from horizontal discontinuities at different depths. Several key variables were also considered to represent the modeling procedure, including removing the unwanted reflections by implementing infinite elements and using equivalent mechanical damping for transducer wedges. Simulated data was then generated for evaluating the “â versus a” statistical model. Based on the statistical model results, all tests were found to fit within the bounds of the POD model, demonstrating the H-TOFD technique is reliable for detecting and sizing horizontal planar discontinuities.
Annis, C., 2016, “Statistical best-practices for building Probability of Detec-tion (POD) models,” R package mh1823, Version 5.2.1 http://StatisticalEngineering.com/mh1823/.
ASTM, 2015, ASTM E3023-15: Standard Practice for Probability of Detection Analysis for â Versus a Data, ASTM International, West Conshohocken, Pennsylvania.
Bagheri, P., S. Sodagar, G. Rashed, and A. Yaghootian, 2014, “A Novel Method for Ultrasonic Evaluation of Horizontal Defects Using Time-of-Flight Diffraction,” Iranian Journal of Oil & Gas Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No. 4, pp. 16–25.
Baskaran, G., K. Balasubramaniam, and C.L. Rao, 2006, “Shear-Wave Time of Flight Diffraction (S-TOFD) Technique,” NDT & E International, Vol. 39, No. 6, pp. 458–467.
Baskaran, G., C. Lakshmana Rao, and K. Balasubramaniam, 2007, “Simulation of the TOFD Technique using the Finite Element Method,” Insight: Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring, Vol. 49, No. 11, pp. 641–646.
Bloom, J., U. Stelwagen, A. Mast, A. Volker, D.O. Thompson, and D.E. Chimenti, 2009, “Pod Generator Project, a Numerical Assessment of the Inspection of Fatigue Cracks Using TOFD,” Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, Kingston, Rhode Island, AIP Conference Proceedings, Vol. 1211, p. 1911.
Carvalho, A.A., J.M.A. Rebello, M.P.V. Souza, L.V.S. Sagrilo, and S.D. Soares, 2008, “Reliability of Non-destructive Test Techniques in the Inspection of Pipelines used in the Oil Industry,” International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, Vol. 85, No. 11, pp. 745–751.
Charlesworth, J.P., and J.A.G. Temple, 2001, Engineering Applications of Ultrasonic Time-of-Flight Diffraction, second edition, Research Studies Press Ltd., Baldock, Hertfordshire, England.
Drozdz, M.B., 2008, “Efficient Finite Element Modelling of Ultrasound Waves in Elastic Media,” Ph.D. thesis, University of London, London, England.
Ginzel, E., F. Honarvar, and A. Yaghootian, 2008, “A Study of Time-of-Flight Diffraction Technique using Photoelastic Visualisation,” The 2nd International Conference on Technical Inspection and NDT, Tehran, Iran.
Gonulal, M., 2016, “Is Time of Flight Diffraction Blind for Inner Diameter and Outer Diameter Surfaces,” Materials Evaluation, Vol. 74, No. 11, pp. 1531–1535.
Nath, S.K., K. Balasubramaniam, C.V. Krishnamurthy, and B.H. Narayana, 2010, “Reliability Assessment of Manual Ultrasonic Time of Flight Diffrac-tion (TOFD) Inspection for Complex Geometry Components,” NDT & E International, Vol. 43, No. 2, pp. 152–162.
Riahi, M., M.R. Khademikhaledi, and A. Valipour, 2014a, “2D Finite Element Modeling of Ultrasonic Time of Flight Diffraction Technique,” Materials Evaluation, Vol. 72, No. 5, pp. 597–601.
Riahi, M., M.R. Khademikhaledi, and A. Valipour, 2014b, “Simulation of Inspection Process for Functionally Graded Materials by Ultrasonic Time of Flight Diffraction Technique,” Materials Evaluation, Vol. 72, No. 8, pp. 1028–1036.
Seyed Hayat Gheib, B., and S. Sodagar, 2016, “Ultrasonic Evaluation of Planar Defects Using Infinite Elements,” Modares Mechanical Engineering, Vol. 16, No. 11, pp. 210–216.
Silk, M.G., 1979, “Defect Sizing using Ultrasonic Diffraction,” British Journal of Non-Destructive Testing, Vol. 21, No. 1, pp. 12–15.
Subbaratnam, R., S.T. Abraham, B. Venkatraman, and B. Raj, 2011, “Immersion and TOFD (I-TOFD): A Novel Combination for Examina-tion of Lower Thicknesses,” Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 30, No. 3, pp. 137–142.
Temple, J.A.G., 1983, “Time-of-Flight Inspection: Theory,” Nuclear Energy, Vol. 22, No. 5, pp. 335–348.
Verkooijen, J., 1995, “TOFD Used to Replace Radiography,” Insight, Vol. 37, No. 6, pp. 433–435.
Visser, W.P., 2002, POD/POS Curves for Non-Destructive Examination: Offshore Technology Report 2000/018, HSE Books, Norwich, United Kingdom.
US Department of Defense, 2009, “Nondestructive Evaluation System Reliability Assessment,” Department of Defense Handbook, MIL-HDBK-1823A, Washington, DC.
229 Page Views
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares