Article Article
Quantified Non-destructive Evaluation of a Concrete Bridge Using Coda Wave Interferometry

There are high demands for quantitative non-destructive evaluation for the aging concrete infrastructures in our society. Unfortunately, the high inhomogeneity and heterogeneity in concrete materials complicate the detection and analysis processes, especially for weak stress and structure changes. In literature, coda wave experiencing multiple volumetric scattering shows promise for sensing weak changes in heterogeneous media such as concrete. Here, the nondestructive evaluation results are presented from the application of the coda wave interferometry (CWI) technique to a 30-meter concrete beam that was removed from a bridge after being in service for 15 years. Specifically, we conducted the varied external loads on the concrete beam, and a couple of sensors worked as emitters or receivers are installed sparsely to generate/collect the ultrasound wave signals at different positions. Then for each source-receiver pair, the CWI technique is utilized to quantify the coda waveform variations including stretches/compressions and distortions, which further indicate the stress changes and weak defects in the beam. The presented results may offer great practical applications for the nondestructive evaluation and testing (NDT) of concrete structures.



  • Abeele, K. V. D., and Visscher, J. D. Damage assessment in reinforced concrete using spectral and temporal nonlinear vibration techniques. Cem. Concr. Res. 30, 2000:1453–1464.
  • Gret, A., Snieder, R. and Scales, J., 2006, “Time-lapse monitoring of rock properties with coda wave interferometry,” J. Geophys. Res. 111, B03305, pp 1-11.
  • Larose, E. and Hall, S., 2009, “Monitoring stress related velocity variation in concrete with a 2×10−5 relative resolution using diffuse ultrasound,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, pp 1853–1856.
  • Lillamand, I., Chaix, J-F, Ploix, M-A and Garnier, V. 2010, “Acoustoelastic effect in concrete material under uniaxial compressive loading,” NDT&E International 43(8), pp 655-660.
  • McCann, D. M., and Forde, M. C. Review of NDT methods in the assessment of concrete and masonry structures. NDT & E Int. 34, 2001:71–84.
  • Payan, C., Garnier, V., Moysan, J. and Johnson, J.P., 2009, “Determination of third order elastic constants in a complex solid applying coda wave interferometry,” Applied Physics Letters 94, 011904.
  • Schurr, D.P., Kim, J.-Y., Sabra, K.G., and Jacobs, L.J., 2011, “Damage detection in concrete using coda interferometry,” NDT&E International, 44(8), 728-735.
  • Shah, A. A. and Hirose, S., 2010, “Nonlinear Ultrasonic Investigation of Concrete Damaged under Uniaxial Compression Step Loading,” J. Mater. Civ. Eng., 22(5), pp 476-48
  • Shokouhi, P., Zoëga, A., Wiggenhauser, H. and Fischer, G., 2012, “Surface Wave Velocity-Stress Relationship in Uniaxially Loaded Concrete,” ACI Materials Journal, 109(2), pp 141-148.
  • Stähler, S. C. and Sens-Schönfelder, C., 2011, “Monitoring stress changes in a concrete bridge with coda wave interferometry,” J.Acoust. Soc. of Am. 129(1), pp 1945–1952.
  • Stauffer, J. D., Woodward, C. B. and White, K. R., 2005, “Nonlinear Ultrasonic Testing with Resonant and Pulse Velocity Parameters for Early Damage in Concrete,” ACI Materials Journal, 102(2), pp 118-121.
  • Snieder, R. 2002, “Coda wave interferometry and the equilibration of energy in elastic media,” Physical Review E 66, 046615.
  • Snieder, R., 2006, “The Theory of Coda Wave Interferometry,” Pure appl. geophys. 163, pp 455–473.
  • Winkler, K. W. and Liu, X., 1996, “Measurements of third-order elastic constants in rocks,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 100 (3), pp 655-660.
  • Zhang, Y., Abraham, O., Grondin, F., Loukili, A., Tournat, V., Le Duff, A., Lascoup, B. and Durand, O., 2012, “ Study of stress-induced velocity variation in concrete under direct tensile force and monitoring of the damage level by using thermally-compensated Coda Wave Interferometry,” Ultrasonics 52, pp 1038–1045.
  • Zhang, Y., Larose, E., Planes, T., Moreau, G. and Rospars, C., 2014, “Imaging of Early-Stage Cracking on Real-Size Concrete Structure from 4-Points Bending Test,” 7th European Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, July 8-11, La Cité, Nantes, France, 1419-1425.
Usage Shares
Total Views
93 Page Views
Total Shares
0 Tweets
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares
Total Usage