Article Article
Nondestructive Testing of Welding Defects in a Tubular-Type Transmission Tower using Magnetic Imaging with Magnetic Sensor Array

This research introduces a nondestructive testing technique using a magnetic sensor array for inspection of welding defects in a tubular-type transmission tower. Magnetic sensors are used to measure the weak residual magnetic field from stress concentration zones and welding defects. Three components of the magnetic field were measured using a hall effect sensor and a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor. The vertical component, which is perpendicular to the weld surface, was found to be the most effective component. Consequently, a linear-type integrated hall sensor array, which has 64 hall effect sensor elements, was produced to measure the vertical component of the magnetic field. The effectiveness of the inspection results was then verified by ultrasonic testing techniques.


Bao, S., M. Fu, Y. Gu, and H. Lou, 2017, “Quantitative Characterization of Stress Concentration of Low-carbon Steel by Metal Magnetic Memory Testing,” Materials Evaluation, Vol. 75, No. 3, pp. 397–405.

Dapino, M.J., R.C. Smith, F.T. Calkins, and A.B. Flatau, 2002, “A Coupled Magnetomechanical Model for Magnetostrictive Transducers and its Application to Villari-Effect Sensors,” Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, Vol. 13, No. 11, pp. 737–747.

Dubov, A.A., 1995, Diagnostics of Boiler Tubes With Usage of Metal Magnetic Memory, Energoatomizdat, Moscow, Russia, p. 112.

Dubov, A.A., and S. Kolokolnikov, 2012, “Assessment of the Material State of Oil and Gas Pipelines Based on the Metal Magnetic Memory Method,” Welding in the World, Vol. 56, No. 3–4, pp. 11–19.

Dubov, A.A., A. Dubov, and S. Kolokolnikov, 2014, “Application of the Metal Magnetic Memory Method for Detection of Defects at the Initial Stage of Their Development for Prevention of Failures of Power Engi-neering Welded Steel Structures and Steam Turbine Parts,” Welding in the World, Vol. 58, No. 2, pp. 225–236.

Ito, Y., T. Masuda, K. Nagao, and K. Matsuoka, 1997, “Ultrasonic Testing System for ERW Mill,” Industry Applications Conference 1997, New Orleans, Louisiana, Vol. 2, pp. 866–872.

KEPRI, 2012, Investigation of Failures of 154 kV Tubular-Type Transmission Tower, internal report, Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon, South Korea. 

Kim, J., J. Lee, M. Le, J. Jun, and C. Cho, 2012, “Integration of Hall and Giant Magnetoresistive Sensor Arrays for Real-Time 2-D Visualization of Magnetic Field Vectors,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol. 48, No. 11, pp. 3708–3711.

Kim, J., J. Lee, M. Le, J. Jun, C. Cho, and K. Shin, 2012, “Improvement of Crack Inspection Possibility Using the Gradient Directional Magnetization and Linearly Integrated Hall Sensors,” Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, Vol. 26, No. 11, pp. 3447–3451.

Le, M., J. Kim, H. Vu, C.S. Angani, and J. Lee, 2014, “Localization and Evaluation of Corrosion in a Small-Bore Piping System Using a Bobbin-type Magnetic Camera,” International Journal of Applied Electromagnetics and Mechanics, Vol. 45, Nos. 1–4, pp. 739–745.

Le, M., J. Kim, S. Kim, and J. Lee, 2016, “Nondestructive Testing of Pitting Corrosion Cracks in Rivet of Multilayer Structures,” International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing, Vol. 17, No. 11, pp. 1433–1442.

Mix, P.E., 2005, “Magnetic Flux Leakage Theory,” Introduction to Nonde-structive Testing: A Training Guide, 2nd edition, Wiley-Interscience, Hoboken, NJ, pp. 73–78.

Nagarkar, V., J. Gordon, S. Vasile, P. Gothoskar, and F. Hopkins, 1996, “High Resolution X-ray Sensor for Non-Destructive Evaluation,” IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 1559–1563.

Nowakowski, A. and P. Paszylk, 2015, “Metal Magnetic Memory Method Used for Analyzing High-Pressure Gas Pipelines,” AGH Drilling, Oil, Gas, Vol. 32, No. 2, pp. 395–404.

Roskosz, M., 2011, “Metal Magnetic Memory Testing of Welded Joints of Ferritic and Austenitic Steels,” NDT & E International, Vol. 44, No. 3, pp. 305–310.

Uchanin, V., V. Najda, and E. Hristoforou, 2011, “The Development of Eddy Current Technique for WWER Steam Generators Inspection: Oper-ational Reliability and Efficiency,” InTech, Rijeka, Croatia, pp. 145–164.

Usage Shares
Total Views
356 Page Views
Total Shares
0 Tweets
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares
Total Usage