Non-destructive Measurements of Residual Stresses in Bridges Using an Ultrasonic Method

Bridges are vital in our society for uninterrupted transportation of goods and people on roads and railways and timely maintenance and repair of bridges are of outmost importance. The residual stresses have a significant effect on the process of the initiation and propagation of the fatigue cracks in welded elements and are responsible for many bridge failures. Knowledge of residual stresses, their distribution and their nature is, therefore, of paramount importance in all stages of bridge’s design, building and maintenance. A portable instrument, UltraMARS that is capable of measuring residual stresses in bulk (averaged through thickness) and in surface and subsurface layers using ultrasonic waves of different frequencies was used in the conducted investigations. The main principles of operation and used methodology are briefly discussed, with actual measurement examples using the bulk, the surface and the subsurface presented. An overview of residual stress measurements in welded elements of railway and highway bridges using the described non-destructive ultrasonic measurement technique is presented. The residual stresses were measured in a bridge that was damaged and in structural details of bridges as well as in a number of welded bridges before and after application of improvement treatment used to beneficially redistribute the residual stresses. The obtained data on residuals stress distribution had proven that the non-destructive ultrasonic method for measurement of residual stresses is a practical and useful tool in maintenance and repair of bridges.

References

 

  • Integrated Research Project “Sustainable Bridges - Assessment for Future Traffic Demands and Longer Lives” funded by the European Commission within 6th Framework Programme, “Condition assessment and inspection of steel railway bridges, including stress measurements in riveted, bolted and welded structures, Sustainable Bridges SB-3.4 2007-11-30 2 (94), Rev. 2007-11-30
  • M. Lukić, S. Urushadze, L. Fryba, et al, 2013, Bridge Fatigue Guidance — Meeting Sustainable Design and Assessment (BRiFaG), Final report, Directorate-General for Research and Innovation, Grant Agreement RFSR-CT-2008-00033, 1 July 2008 to 30 June 2011, EUR 25866 EN
  • Nagy, W., van Bogaert, Ph. And de Backer, H., 2015, Determining Residual Stresses in Welded Connections of Orthotropic Steel Bridge Decks with a Hole-drilling Technique, in “Implementing Innovative Ideas in Structural Engineering and Project Management”, Ed. Saha, S., Zhang, Y., Yazdani, S., and Singh, A., PP. 155-160.
  • Miyashita, T., Inaba, N., Hirayama, S., Liu, C. and Nagai, M., 2015, Measurement Method for Welding Residual Stress in Steel I-shaped Girder with Thick Flange and its Influence on Load-carrying Capacity for Bending, Journal of JSCE, Vol. 3, 191-208.
  • Acevedo, C., Evans, A., and Nussbaumer, A., 2012, Neutron diffraction investigations on residual stresses contributing to the fatigue crack growth in ferritic steel tubular bridges, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping 95:31-38.
  • Clark, Al V., Lozev, M. G. and Fuchs, P.A.,1996, "Bridge-safety evaluation using ultrasonic stress measurement", Proc. SPIE 2946, Nondestructive Evaluation of Bridges and Highways,  13 November 1996); doi: 10.1117/12.259153; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.259153
  • Trufyakov, V., Mikheev, P. and Kudryavtsev, Y., 1995, “Fatigue Strength of Welded Structures. Residual Stresses and Improvement Treatments”, London. Harwood Academic Publishers GmbH. (8) (2) Kudryavtsev, Y., 1994, “Effect of Residual Stresses on the Endurance of Welded Joints”, “International Institute of Welding”, IIWDoc. XIII - 1568 - 94.
  • Hughes, D.S.; Blankenship, E.B.; Mims, R.L. Variation of elastic moduli and wave velocity with pressure and temperature in plastics. J. Appl. Phys. 1950, 21, 294–297. [CrossRef ]
  • Crecraft, D.I. The measurement of applied and residual stresses in metals using ultrasonic waves, J. Sound. Vibr. 1967, 5, 173–192.
  • Guz’, A.N.; Makhort, F.G., 2000, The Physical Fundamentals of the Ultrasonic Nondestructive Stress Analysis of Solids, Int. Appl. Mech. 2000, 36, PP. 1119–1149.
  • Kleiman, J. and Kudryavtsev, Y., 2012, “ Residual Stress Management in Welding: Residual Stress Measurement and Improvement Treatments”, in Proceedings of ASME 2012, 31st International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering, v 6: Materials Technology; Polar and Arctic Sciences and Technology; Petroleum Technology Symposium, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, July 1–6, 2012, pp. 73-79.
  • Kleiman, J. and Kudryavtsev, Y.,, 2014, Ultrasonic Measurement of Residual Stresses in Welded Elements, 5TH  Annual CWA CanWeld Conference and IIW Congress, Westin Bayshore Hotel Vancouver, Canada, September 28 – October 1, 2014.
  • Kudryavtsev, Y., 1985, Application of the ultrasonic method for residual stress measurement. Development of fracture toughness requirement for weld joints in steel structures for arctic service. VTT-MET. B-89. Espoo. Finland, pp. 62-76.
  • Kudryavtsev, Y., Kleiman. J., and Gushcha, O., 2000, Residual Stress Measurement in Welded Elements by Ultrasonic Method, IX International Congress on Experimental Mechanics, Orlando, Florida, USA, June 5-8, 2000, pp. 954-957.
  • Kudryavtsev, Y., Kleiman,. J. and Gushcha, O., 2000, Ultrasonic Measurement of Residual Stresses in Welded Railway Bridge, Structural Materials Technology: An NDT Conference. Atlantic City, NJ. February 28-March 3, 2000, pp. 213-218.
  • Kudryavtsev, Y., Kleiman, J., Gushcha, O., Smilenko, V., and Brodovy, V., 2004, Ultrasonic Technique and Device for Residual Stress Measurement, X International Congress and Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, Costa Mesa, California USA, June 7-10, 2004, pp. 1-7.

 

Metrics
Usage Shares
Total Views
27 Page Views
Total Shares
0 Tweets
27
0 PDF Downloads
0
0 Facebook Shares
Total Usage
27