Laser Ultrasonics for Remote Detection of Stress Corrosion Cracking in Harsh Environments

Structural components susceptible to degradation in harsh environments with limited accessibility require distinctive nondestructive testing methods. Rayleigh surface waves generated and received using laser ultrasonics are capable of characterizing surface degradation and are most suitable for robotic delivery systems because of the noncontact transduction. Stress corrosion cracking in austenitic stainless steel is the primary concern in the present research. Specifically, the stainless steel canisters used within dry storage casks for spent nuclear fuel provide a challenging application due to the elevated temperature (up to 350oF) and gamma radiation (up to 27 krad/hr) environment as well as the extremely limited access. Nondestructive inspection provides information on the structural integrity of the canister that could be used to re-certify the dry storage facility. In addition to environment and access challenges, the generation of surface waves having high directivity and laser interferometer based reception of wave motion from a rough surface are addressed in this research. A Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser is used in conjunction with different slit curves in order to generate different wavefront patterns. The laser interferometer receives both the incident wave and the wave reflected by any surface cracks. The beam spreading patterns corresponding to each type of slit mask are studied and the quality of b-scan images are compared. It is concluded that an inward curved slit mask provides clearer images with enhanced contrast compared with a single line slit mask.

  •  EPRI, 2012, Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) of welded stainless steel canisters for dry cask storage systems, EPRI report 3002000815.
  • Enos, D.G., C.R. Bryan, and K.M. Norman, 2013, Data report on corrosion testing of stainless steel SNF storage canisters, Sandia National Laboratory, SAND2013-8314P.
  • Meyer, R.M., A.F. Pardini, J.M. Cuta, H.E. Adkins, A.M. Casella, A. Qiao, M. Larche, A.A. Diaz, and S.R. Doctor, 2013, NDE to manage atmospheric SCC in canisters for dry storage of spent fuel: an assessment, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, PNNL-22495.
  • NRC, 2012, Potential chloride-induced stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stainless steel and maintenance of dry cask storage system canisters, NRC Information Notice 2012-20.
  • NRC, 2013, Premature degradation of spent fuel storage cask structures and components from environmental moisture, NRC Information Notice 2013-07.
  • Lissenden, C.J., S. Choi, H. Cho, I. Jovanovic, A. Motta, K. Hartig, X. Xiao, S. Le Berre, S. Brennan, K. Reichard, R. Leary, B. McNelly, 2017, “Toward robotic inspection of dry storage casks for spent nuclear fuel,” ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technology, Vol. 139, 031602.
  • Xiao, X., S. Le Berre, K. Hartig, A. Motta, I. Jovanovic, 2017, “Surrogate measurement of chlorine concentration of steel surfaces by alkali element detection via laser-based breakdown spectroscopy,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, Vol. 130, pp. 67-74.
  • Xiao, X., S. Le Berre, D.G. Fobar, M. Burger, P.J. Skrodzki, K.C. Hartig, A.T. Motta, I. Jovanovic, 2018, “Measurement of chlorine concentration on steel surfaces via fiber-optic laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in double-pulse configuration,” Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, Vol. 141, pp. 44-52.
  • Choi, S., H. Cho, C.J. Lissenden, 2017, “Selection of shear horizontal wave transducers for robotic nondestructive inspection in harsh environments,” Sensors, Vol. 17, 5.
  • Choi, S., H. Cho, M. Lindsey, C.J. Lissenden, 2018, “Electromagnetic acoustic transducers for robotic nondestructive inspection in harsh environments,” Sensors Vol. 18, 193.
  • Mostavi, A., M. Kabir, D. Ozevin, 2017, “The integration of superlattices and immersion nonlinear ultrasonics to enhance damage detection threshold,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 111(20), 201905.
  • Scruby, C.B., and L.E. Drain, 1990, Laser Ultrasonics: techniques and applications, Bristol, Adam Hilger. Hasanian, M., and C.J. Lissenden, 2017, “Assessment of coating layers on the accuracy of displacement measurement in laser Doppler vibrometry,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1806, 050006.
  • Bernstein, J.R., and J.B. Spicer, 2000, “Line source representation for laser-generated ultrasound in aluminum,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 107(3), 1352-1357.
  • Choi, S.H., H.G. Seo, and K.Y. Jhang, 2015, “Noncontact evaluating of acoustic nonlinearity of a laser- generated surface wave in plastically deformed aluminum alloy,” Res. Nondestruct. Eval., 26(1), 13-22. Lévesque, D., L. Dubourg, and A. Blouin, 2011, “Laser ultrasonics for defect detection and residual stress measurement of friction stir welds,” Nondestruct. Test. Eva., 26(3-4), 319-333.
  • Taheri, H., L.W. Koester, T.A. Bigelow, L.J. Bond, 2017, Thermoelastic finite element modeling of laser generated ultrasound in additive manufacturing materials,” ASNT Annual Conf., pp:188–198, Nashville, TN. Chen, K., X. Fu, D.J. Dorantes-Gonzalez, Y. Li, S. Wu, and X. Hu, 2013, “Laser-generated surface acoustic wave technique for crack monitoring – A review,” Int. J. Autom. Tech., 7(2), 211-220.Hess, P., and A.M. Lomonosov, 2013, “Noncontact nondestructive evaluation of realistic cracks with surface acoustic waves by scanning excitation and detection lasers,” Int. J. Thermophys., 34, 1367-1375.
  • Arias, I., and J.D. Achenbach, 2003, Thermoelastic generation of ultrasound by line-focused laser irradiation,Int. J. Solids Struct., 40, 6917-6935.
  • Choi, S.H., T.H. Nam, K.Y. Jhang, and C.S. Kim, 2012, Frequency response of narrowband surface waves generated by laser beams spatially modulated with a line-arrayed slit mask,J. Korean Phys. Soc., 60(1), 26- 30.
  • Choi, S.H., and K.Y. Jhang, 2013, Influence of slit width on harmonic generation in ultrasonic surface waves excited by masking a laser beam with a line arrayed slit,NDT&E Int., 57, 1-6.
Usage Shares
Total Views
16 Page Views
Total Shares
0 Tweets
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares
Total Usage