Additive manufacturing (AM) has a number of potential advantages for fabrication of metallic components for aerospace and other high-reliability applications. Nondestructive evaluation and inspection techniques will be needed to achieve the levels of quality assurance that have been successful for fabrication using traditional means. AM has developed rapidly in recent years, and published descriptions of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques applied to AM materials have begun to emerge. In the present work, we investigate the microstructure, elastic properties, and discontinuity population of an aluminum alloy prepared by selective laser melting using ultra-sonic measurements and computed tomography (CT) radiography. The elastic properties were compared between samples with different thermal histories and different sizes, and showed small but meaningful differences due to direction within the sample and heat treatment. X-ray CT was used to qualitatively and quantitatively describe the discontinuity population, which was influenced by both laser settings and scanning strategies. The results of NDE can be used for process optimiza-tion, design, and stress analysis.
Aboulkhair, N.T., N.M. Everitt, I. Ashcroft, and C. Tuck, 2014, “Reducing Porosity in AlSi10Mg Parts Processed by Selective Laser Melting,” Additive Manufacturing, Vols. 1–4, pp. 77–86.
Aboulkhair, N.T., I. Maskery, C. Tuck, I. Ashcroft, and N.M. Everitt, 2016, “The Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Selectively Laser Melted AlSi10Mg: The Effect of a Conventional T6-like Heat Treatment,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 667, pp. 139–146.
Aboulkhair, N.T., C. Tuck, I. Ashcroft, I. Maskery, and N.M. Everitt, 2015, “On the Precipitation Hardening of Selective Laser Melted AlSi10Mg,” Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, Vol. 46, No. 8, pp. 3337–3341.
Carlton, H.D., A. Haboub, G.F. Gallegos, D.Y. Parkinson, and A.A. MacDowell, 2016, “Damage Evolution and Failure Mechanisms in Addi-tively Manufactured Stainless Steel,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 651, pp. 406–414.
Cerniglia, D., M. Scafidi, A. Pantano, and J. Rudlin, 2015, “Inspection of Additive-Manufactured Layered Components,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 62, pp. 292–298.
Cunnigham, R., S.P. Narra, C. Montgomery, J. Beuth, and A.D. Rollett, 2017, “Synchrotron-Based X-ray Microtomography Characterization of the Effect of Processing Variables on Porosity Formation in Laser Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V,” JOM, Vol. 69, No. 3, 2017, pp. 479–484.
Cunnigham, R., S.P. Narra, T. Ozturk, J. Beuth, and A.D. Rollett, 2016, “Evaluating the Effect of Processing Parameters on Porosity in Electron Beam Melted Ti-6Al-4V via Synchrotron X-ray Microtomography,” JOM, Vol. 68, No. 3, pp. 765–771.
Department of Defense, 2003, “Metallic Materials and Elements for Aerospace Vehicles and Structures,” MIL-HDBK-5, Revision J, Washington, DC.
Everton, S.K., M. Hirsch, P. Stravroulakis, R.K. Leach, and A.T. Clare, 2016, “Review of In-situ Process Monitoring and In-situ Metrology for Metal Additive Manufacturing,” Materials and Design, Vol. 95, pp. 431–435.
Holesinger, T.G., J. S. Carpenter, T.J. Lienert, B.M. Patterson, P.A. Papin, H. Swenson, and N.L. Cordes, 2016, “Characterization of an Aluminum Alloy Hemispherical Shell Fabricated via Direct Metal Laser Melting,” JOM, Vol. 68, No. 3, pp. 1000–1011.
Koester, L., H. Taheri, L.J. Bond, D. Barnard, and J. Gray, 2016, “Additive Manufacturing Metrology: State of the Art and Needs Assessment,” 42nd Annual Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, Minneapolis, Minnesota, AIP Conference Proceedings, doi:10.1063/1.4940604.
Maskery, I., N.T. Aboulkhair, M.R. Corfield, C. Tuck, A.T. Clare, R.K. Leach, R.D. Wildman, I.A. Ashcroft, and R.J.M. Hague, 2016, “Quantifica-tion and Characterisation of Porosity in Selectively Laser Melted Al-10Si-Mg using X-ray Computed Tomography,” Materials Characterization, Vol. 111, pp. 193–204.
Mazurek, M., and R. Austin, 2016, “Non-Destructive Inspection of Additive Manufactured Parts in the Aerospace Industry,” DSIAC Journal, Vol. 3, No. 3, pp. 13–22.
NAVAIR, 2016, “NAVAIR Marks First Flight with 3-D Printed, Safety-Critical Parts,” NAVAIR News, accessed at navair.navy.mil/index.cfm?fuse-action=home.NAVAIRNewsStory&id=6323 on 19 September 2017.
Papadakis, E.P., 1965, “Ultrasonic Attenuation Caused by Scattering in Polycrystalline Metals,” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 711–717.
Ragab, A.-R., and S.E. Bayoumi, 1998, Engineering Solid Mechanics: Funda-mentals and Applications, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Rawal, S., J. Brantley, and N. Karabudak, 2013, “Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Components for Spacecraft Applications,” IEEE 6th Inter-national Conference on Recent Advances in Space Technologies, Istanbul, Turkey.
Robinson, L., and J. Scott, 2014, “Layers of Complexity: Making the Promises Possible for Additive Manufacturing of Metals,” JOM, Vol. 66, No. 11, pp. 2194–2207.
Rosen, M., E. Horowitz, S. Fick, R.C. Reno, and R. Mehrabian, 1982, “An Investigation of the Precipitation-Hardening Process in Aluminum Alloy 2219 by Means of Sound Wave Velocity and Ultrasonic Attenuation,” Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 53, No. 2, pp. 163–177.
Slotwinski, J.A., and G.V. Blessing, 1999, “Ultrasonic Measurement of the Dynamic Elastic Moduli of Small Metal Samples,” Journal of Testing and Evaluation, Vol. 29, No. 1, pp. 164–166.
Slotwinski, J.A., E.J. Garboczi, and K.M. Hebenstreit, 2014a, “Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control,” Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Vol. 119, pp. 494–528.
Slotwinski, J.A., E.J. Garboczi, P.E. Stutzman, C.F. Ferraris, S.S. Watson, and M.A. Peltz, 2014b, “Characterization of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing,” Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Vol. 119, pp. 460–493.
Taheri, H., M.R. Bin Mohammad Shoaib, L.W. Koester, T.A. Bigelow, P.C. Collins, and L.J. Bond, 2017, “Powder-based Additive Manufacturing—A Review of Types of Defects, Generation Mechanisms, Detection, Property Evaluation, and Metrology,” International Journal of Additive and Subtrac-tive Materials Manufacturing, Vol. 1, No. 2, pp. 172–209.
Takata, N., H. Kodaira, K. Sekizawa, A. Suzuki, and M. Kobashi, “Change in Microstructure of Selectively Laser Melted AlSi10Mg Alloy with Heat Treatments,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 704, pp. 218–228.
Thermo Fisher Scientific, 2015, “Avizo Software 9.0 Release Notes,” Thermo Fisher Scientific, Hillsboro, OR.
Thompson, A., I. Maskery, and R.K. Leach, 2016, “X-ray Computed Tomography for Additive Manufacturing: A Review,” Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 27, No. 7, p. 072001.
Todorov, E., R. Spencer, S. Gleeson, M. Jamshidinia, and S.M. Kelly, 2014, “America Makes: National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute (NAMII). Project 1: Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of Complex Metallic Additive Manufactured (AM) Structures,” AFRL-RX-WP-TR-2014-0162, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, OH.
Toozandehjani, M., K.A. Matori, F. Ostovan, F. Mustapha, N.I. Zahari, and A. Oskoueian, 2015, “On the Correlation between Microstructural Evolu-tion and Ultrasonic Properties: A Review,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 50, No. 7, pp. 2643–2665.
Wolfenden, A., M. Harmouche, G. Blessing, Y. Chen, P. Terranova, V. Dayal, V. Kinra, J. Lemmens, R. Phillips, J. Smith, P. Mahmoodi, and R. Wann, 1989, “Dynamic Young’s Modulus Measurements in Metallic Mate-rials: Results of an Interlaboratory Testing Program,” Journal of Testing and Evaluation, Vol. 17, No. 1, pp. 2–13.
Zhou, X., D. Wang, X. Liu, D. Zhang, S. Qu, J. Ma, G. London, Z. Shen, and W. Liu, 2015, “3d-Imaging of Selective Laser Melting Defects in a Co-Cr-Mo Alloy by Synchrotron Radiation Micro-CT,” Acta Materialia, Vol. 98, pp. 1–16.
478 Page Views
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares