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A New Nomogram Proposal to Determine Concrete Compressive Strength by Combined Nondestructive Testing Methods

Concrete is the most widely used construction material in contemporary construction technology. In particular, it holds an important place in the building industry in the world. Since concrete is a nonhomogeneous material, determining the strength of concrete accurately is quite difficult. In this respect, to check the mechanical properties of concrete in-situ, nondestructive test (NDT) methods can be used. They are useful as they do not damage concrete; however, these test results are sometimes deceptive. To reduce these deceptive results, destructive test methods were proposed to increase the accuracy of nondestructive methods. The objective of this study is to determine the strength of concrete with different characteristic strengths using destructive and NDT methods, and to establish new relationships between the compressive strength of concrete and Schmidt rebound values, and ultrasonic wave velocities. For this purpose, 101 concrete cube samples were prepared. After 7 and 28 days of curing, Schmidt rebound and ultrasonic wave velocity tests were applied as NDT methods. New formulations and graphs were established by carrying out a multiple regression analysis between the ultrasonic wave velocities, Schmidt rebound values, and compressive strengths. Thus, a new combined NDT method was developed with a nomogram. Furthermore, the applicability and accuracy of the formula and graph obtained were investigated by comparing the results of core samples from existing structures. The most important findings obtained from the study are summarized below. The concrete strength can be determined with nondestructive formulas obtained with an accuracy of 85%. High strength concrete cube samples are obtained in-house with 1.6% deviation, and core samples in-situ can be obtained with 7.3% deviation with the newly developed NDT nomogram. These test results show that the newly developed NDT formulas in this study are a very good alternative for determining concrete strength in-situ.

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