The ultrasonic cylindrical guided wave technique (CGWT) uses a 0°longitudinal wave transducer applied to the flat end of a rod or bolt. CGWT has been used for bolt and stud inspection since the early 1980s in power plants and petrochemical plants (Light et al.,1987). The research and development was begun after a 1.83 m (6 ft) long, 63.5 mm (2.5 in.) diameter anchor rod that was buried in concrete and used for anchoring a reactor pressure vessel was found on the floor of the plant. The bolt had clearly fractured at a location near the buried end of the rod (approximately 1.5 m [5 ft] from the end of the rod). The utility wanted to know if there was a way to inspect the remaining rods that were still embedded in concrete for discontinuities that might cause them to fail as well.
Dunegan, H.L., 1964, “High Temperature Dynamic Module Measurements by Use of Ultrasonics,” Materials Evaluation, Vol. 22, No. 6, pp. 266–273.
Light, Glenn M., Narayan R. Joshi, and Soung-Nan Liu, 1987, “Ultrasonic Detection of Stress-Corrosion Cracks in Reactor Pressure Vessel and Primary Coolant System Anchor Studs (Bolts),” Materials Evaluation, Vol. 45, No. 12, pp. 1413–1418.
McSkimin, H.J., 1956, “Propagation of Longitudinal Waves and Shear Waves in Cylindrical Rods at High Frequencies,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 484–494.
Redwood, M., 1959, “Velocity and Attenuation of a Narrow-Band, High-Frequency Compressional Pulse in a Solid Wave Guide,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 31, No. 4, 1959, pp. 442–448.
Varsy, R.H., 1976, “Ultrasonic Pulse Transmission in Cylin-drical Waveguide,” 1976, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol. 9, pp. 1661–1669.
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