Publication: Publication Date: 1 January 2017Testing Method:

This paper summarizes the results of three nonlinear acoustic tests performed on a series of stress-damaged concrete samples. The three tests were: nonlinear resonant “ultrasound” spectroscopy (NRUS), scaling subtraction method (SSM), and dynamic acousto-elastic testing (DAET). The test samples were cut out of a large concrete block emulating common field investigation scenarios, where the quality of an existing structure was examined at different locations. One sample was left intact while the others were pressed to 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, and 70% of the (nominal) ultimate compressive strength of their common concrete mixture. NRUS was performed on all samples, whereas SSM and DAET were conducted on a subset of samples. In addition, the conventional (linear) resonant “ultrasound” spectroscopy and ultrasonic pulse velocity measurements for all samples are reported. The authors present the theoretical background of nonlinear acoustic testing, discuss the principles and outcome of each test, and compare the corresponding results of linear and nonlinear acoustic techniques. The obtained results attest to the high sensitivity of nonlinear acoustic measurements (that is, estimated nonlinear elastic material parameters) to the presence of microcracks. While NRUS, SSM, and DAET clearly differentiate between intact and moderately damaged samples, neither linear wave velocities nor (linear) dynamic elastic moduli can reliably delineate undamaged and damaged concrete.

References

- Antonaci, P., C.L.E. Bruno, P.G. Bocca, M. Scalerandi, and A.S. Gliozzi, “Nonlinear Ultrasonic Evaluation of Load Effects on Discontinuities in Concrete,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 40, No. 2, 2010, pp. 340–346.
- Bahn, B.Y., and C.T. Hsu, “Stress-strain Behavior of Concrete under Cyclic Loading,” ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 95, No. M18, 1998, pp. 178–193.
- Bristow, J.R., “Microcracks, and the Static and Dynamic Elastic Constants of Annealed and Heady Cold-worked Metals,” British Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 11, No. 81, 1960, pp. 81–85.
- Chaix, J.-F., V. Garnier, and G. Corneloup, “Ultrasonic Wave Propagation in Heterogeneous Solid Media: Theoretical Analysis and Experimental Validation,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 44, No. 2, 2006, pp. 200–210.
- Claytor, K.E., J.R. Koby, and J.A. Tencate, “Limitations of Preisach Theory: Elastic Aftereffect, Congruence, and End Point Memory,” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 36, No. 6, 2009, pp. 1–4.
- Delrue, S., and K. Van Den Abeele, “Three-dimensional Finite Element Simulation of Closed Delaminations in Composite Materials,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2012, pp. 315–324.
- Guyer, R.A, and P.A. Johnson, “Mesoscopic Elasticity: Evidence for a New Class of Materials,” Physics Today, Vol. 52, No. 4, 1999, pp. 30–36.
- Guyer, R.A., and P.A. Johnson, Nonlinear Mesoscopic Elasticity: The Complex Behaviour of Rocks, Soil, Concrete, Wiley, Weinheim, Germany, 2009.
- Guyer, R.A., K.R. McCall, and G.N. Boitnott, “Hysteresis, Discrete Memory, and Nonlinear Wave Propagation in Rock: A New Paradigm,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 74, No. 17, 1995, pp. 3491–3494.
- Guyer, R.A., K.R. McCall, G.N. Boitnott, L.B. Hilbert, and T.J. Plona, “Quantitative Implementation of Preisach-Mayergoyz Space to Find Static and Dynamic Elastic Moduli in Rock,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 102, No. B3, 1997, pp. 5281–5293.
- Johnson, P., and A. Sutin, A “Slow Dynamics and Anomalous Nonlinear Fast Dynamics in Diverse Solids,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 117, No. 1, 2005, pp. 124–130.
- Kachanov, M.L., “Effective Elastic Properties of Cracked Solids: Critical Review of Some Basic Concepts,” Applied Mechanics Reviews, Vol. 45, No. 8, 1992, pp. 304–335.
- Kim, J.-Y., L.J. Jacobs, J. Qu, and J.W. Littles, “Experimental Characterization of Fatigue Damage in a Nickel-base Superalloy using Nonlinear Ultrasonic Waves,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 120, No. 3, 2006.
- Landau, L.D., L.P. Pitaevskii, A.M. Kosevich, and E.M. Lifshitz, Theory of Elasticity, third edition Elsevier, Ltd., Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1986.
- McCall, K.R., and R.A. Guyer, “Equation of State and Wave Propagation in Hysteretic Nonlinear Elastic Materials,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 99, No. B12, 1994, pp. 23887–23897.
- Kumar Mehta, P., and P.J.M. Monteiro, Concrete: Microstructure, Properties, and Materials, McGraw-Hill, New York, New York, 2006.
- Mendelsohn, D.A., and C. Pecorari, “Nonlinear Free Vibrations of a Beam with Hysteretic Damage,” Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 32, No. 2, 2013, pp. 378–390.
- Nogueira, C.L., and K.J. Willam, “Ultrasonic Testing of Damage in Concrete under Uniaxial Compression,” Materials Journal, Vol. 98, No. 3, 2001, pp. 265–275.
- O’Connell, R.J., and B. Budiansky, “Reply [to ‘Comment on “Seismic Velocities in Dry and Saturated Cracked Solids” by Richard J. O’Connell and Bernard Budiansky’],” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 1, No. 14, 1976, pp. 2577–2578.
- Payan, C., T.J. Ulrich, P.Y. Le Bas, T. Saleh, and M. Guimaraes, “Quantitative Linear and Nonlinear Resonance Inspection Techniques and Analysis for Material Characterization: Application to Concrete Thermal Damage,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 136, No. 2, 2014.
- Payan, C., T.J. Ulrich, P. Le Bas, and M. Guimaraes, “Quantitative Linear and Nonlinear Resonant Inspection Techniques for Characterizing Thermal Damage in Concrete,” Acoustics 2012, Nantes, France, April 2012.
- Pecorari, C., and D.A. Mendelsohn, “Forced Nonlinear Vibrations of a One-dimensional Bar with Arbitrary Distributions of Hysteretic Damage,” Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2014, pp. 239–251.
- Planès, T., and E. Larose, “A Review of Ultrasonic Coda Wave Interferometry in Concrete,” Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 53, November 2013, pp. 248–255.
- Raju, N.K., “Microcracking in Concrete under Repeated Compressive Loads,” Building Science, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1970, pp. 51–56.
- Renaud, G., P.Y. Le Bas, and P.A. Johnson, “Revealing Highly Complex Elastic Nonlinear (Anelastic) Behavior of Earth Materials Applying a New Probe: Dynamic Acoustoelastic Testing,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 117, No. 6, 2012, pp. 1–17.
- Renaud, G., S. Callé, and M. Defontaine, “Dynamic Acoustoelastic Testing of Weakly Pre-loaded Unconsolidated Water-saturated Glass Beads,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 128, No. 6, 2010, pp. 3344–3354.
- Renaud, G., S. Callé, and M. Defontaine, “Remote Dynamic Acoustoelastic Testing: Elastic and Dissipative Acoustic Nonlinearities Measured under Hydrostatic Tension and Compression,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 94, No. 1, 2009.
- Renaud, G., J. Rivière, P.Y. Le Bas, and P.A. Johnson, “Hysteretic Nonlinear Elasticity of Berea Sandstone at Low-vibrational Strain Revealed by Dynamic Acousto-elastic Testing,” Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 40, No. 4, 2013, pp. 715–719.
- Rivière, J., S. Haupert, P. Laugier, and P.A. Johnson, “Nonlinear Ultrasound: Potential of the Cross-correlation Method for Osseointegration Monitoring,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 132, No. 3, 2012, pp. EL202–EL207.
- Rivière, J., M.C. Remillieux, Y. Ohara, B.E. Anderson, S. Haupert, T.J. Ulrich, and P.A. Johnson “Dynamic Acousto-elasticity in a Fatigue-cracked Sample,” Journal of Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2014, pp. 216–225.
- Rivière, J., G. Renaud, R.A. Guyer, and P.A. Johnson, “Pump and Probe Waves in Dynamic Acousto-elasticity: Comprehensive Description and Comparison with Nonlinear Elastic Theories,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 114, No. 5, 2013, pp. 1–19.
- Rivière, J., P. Shokouhi, R.A. Guyer, and P.A. Johnson, “A Set of Measures for the Systematic Classification of the Nonlinear Elastic Behavior of Disparate Rocks,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 120, No. 3, 2015, pp. 1–18.
- Scalerandi, M., A.S. Gliozzi, C.L.E. Bruno, D. Masera, and P. Bocca, “A Scaling Method to Enhance Detection of a Nonlinear Elastic Response,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 92, No. 10, 2008, pp. 2008–2010.
- Snieder, R., “The Theory of Coda Wave Interferometry,” Pure and Applied Geophysics, Vol. 163, Nos. 2–3, 2006, pp. 455–473.
- Suaris, W., and V. Fernando, “Detection of Crack Growth in Concrete from Ultrasonic Intensity Measurements,” Materials and Structures, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1987, pp. 214–220.
- Van Den Abeele, K.E., P.A. Johnson, and R.A. Guyer, “On the Quasianalytic Treatment of Hysteretic Nonlinear Response in Elastic Wave Propagation,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 101, No. 4, 1997, pp. 1885–1898.
- Van Den Abeele, K.E., A. Sutin, J. Carmeliet, and P.A. Johnson, “Microdamage Diagnostics using Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy (NEWS),” NDT & E International, Vol. 34, No. 4, 2001, pp. 239–248.
- Van Den Abeele, K., S. Delrue, S. Haupert, and V. Aleshin, “Modeling Nonlinear Response from Distributed Damage and Kissing Bonds,” Acoustical Society of America Proceedings of Meetings on Acoustics, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2012.
- Walsh, J.B., “The Effect of Cracks on the Uniaxial Elastic Compression of Rocks,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 70, No. 2, 1965, pp. 399–411.
- Wegler, U., H. Nakahara, C. Sens-Schönfelder, M. Korn, and K. Shiomi, “Sudden Drop of Seismic Velocity after the 2004 Mw 6.6 Mid-Niigata Earthquake, Japan, Observed with Passive Image Interferometry B06305,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Vol. 114, No. 6, 2009, pp. 1–11.

Metrics

Usage | Shares |
---|---|

Total Views 411 Page Views |
Total Shares 0 Tweets |

411 0 PDF Downloads |
0 0 Facebook Shares |

Total Usage | |

411 |