Article Article
Investigating the Feasibility of Ultrasonic Shear Actuation for Evaluation of Adhesive Joints in Multilayered Structures: FE Simulation

This paper presents an investigation into the use of shear actuated piezoelectric transducers for damage detection in adhesive joints of a multilayered structure. The finite element method is used to simulate shear-mode piezoelectric transducers embedded in the bondline of a double-layer aluminum structure. The piezoelectric transducers made of lead zirconate titanate were actuated and sensed in shear, generating antisymmetric guided Lamb waves in a pitch-catch configuration. To evaluate the proposed approach, the influence of several damage cases on wave propagation were investigated including void, vertical crack, disbond, and kissing bonds. The waveform signals produced by numerical simulations were inspected to detect the presence of damage using a damage index based on the root mean square deviation method. The simulation results indicated the proposed approach is capable of detecting all of the damage forms inspected to varying degrees and could be a promising approach for structural health monitoring of adhesively bonded joints.


[1] P. B. Nagy, “Ultrasonic detection of kissing bonds at adhesive interfaces,” J. Adhes. Sci. Technol., vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 619–630, Jan. 1991.

[2] T. Kundu, A. Maji, T. Ghosh, and K. Maslov, “Detection of kissing bonds by Lamb waves,” Ultrasonics, vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 573–580, 1998.

[3] P. Marty, N. Desai, and J. Andersson, “NDT of kissing bond in aeronautical structures,” World Conf. NDT, 2004.

[4] C. J. Brotherhood, B. W. Drinkwater, and S. Dixon, “The detectability of kissing bonds in adhesive joints using ultrasonic techniques,” Ultrasonics, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 521–529, 2003.

[5] F. Ricci, A. K. Mal, L. Maio, N. D. Boffa, M. Di Palma, and L. Lecce, “Guided waves in layered plate with delamination,” 7th Eur. Work. Struct. Helath Monit., pp. 80–87, 2014.

[6] Y. Zhuang, Y.-H. Li, F. Kopsaftopoulos, and F.-K. Chang, “A self-diagnostic adhesive for monitoring bonded joints in aerospace structures,” 2016.

[7] R. Dugnani, Y. Zhuang, F. Kopsaftopoulos, and F.-K. Chang, “Adhesive bond-line degradation detection via a cross-correlation electromechanical impedance–based approach,” Struct. Heal. Monit. An Int. J., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 650–667, Nov. 2016.

[8] P. Rajbhandari, K. Tautges, S. Chatradi, and N. Salowitz, “Impact Location in an Isotropic Plate without Training,” Procedia Eng., vol. 188, pp. 170–177, 2017.

[9] ANSYS Inc., Element Reference. 2017.

[10] ANSYS Inc., Contact Technology Guide. 2017.

[11] H. Altammar, S. Kaul, and A. Dhingra, “Thermo-mechanical analysis of mixed-mode damage: Cohesive zone modeling,” in Proceedings of the ASME Design Engineering Technical Conference, 2015, vol. 8.

[12] APC International Ltd., “Physical and Piezoelectric Properties of APC Materials.” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 09-Sep-2017].

[13] Henkel Corporation, “Hysol® EA 9394.” [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 09-Sep-2017].

[14] V. Giurgiutiu and C. A. Rogers, “Recent advancements in the electromechanical (E/M) impedance method for structural health monitoring and NDE,” in SPIE 3329, Smart Structures and Materials , 1998, vol. 3329, pp. 536–547.

[15] V. Giurgiutiu, Structural Health Monitoring with Piezoelectric Wafer Active Sensors, 1st ed. London: Elsevier Inc., 2008.

Usage Shares
Total Views
119 Page Views
Total Shares
0 Tweets
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares
Total Usage