Ultrasonic techniques allow for the nondestructive investigation of material properties including hardness, but the requirement of correlation for each material, such as different alloys of steel, separately turns these tasks into a formidable process. This study aims to overcome this problem by proposing a new technique for hardness evalua-tion of low-alloy steels based on ultrasonic wave velocity and information about the weight percent of carbon content. For this purpose, carbon steel samples with different carbon content, less than 0.5 wt%, were selected. Samples were annealed at varying temperatures, and then an immersion ultrasonic technique was used to measure longitu-dinal ultrasonic wave velocity in each sample. The hardness of annealed samples was determined on the rockwell B scale. The relationship between ultrasonic wave velocity and hardness of annealed steel samples was investigated in terms of carbon content. A mathematical model was developed, based on carbon content and ultrasonic wave velocity, to predict hardness.
ASM, 2000, ASM Handbook, Vol. 8: Mechanical Testing and Evaluation, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio.
ASM, 1999, Hardness Testing, second edition, ASM International, Materials Park, Ohio.
ASM, 2011, Hardness Testing: Principles and Applications, ASM Interna-tional, Materials Park, Ohio.
ASNT, 1991, Nondestructive Testing Handbook, second edition: Vol. 7: Ultrasonic Testing, American Society for Nondestructive Testing, Columbus, Ohio.
Bouda, A., A., Benchaala, and K. Alem, 2000, “Ultrasonic Characterization of Materials Hardness,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 38, Nos. 1–8, pp. 224–227.
Bouda, A.B., S. Lebaili, and A. Benchaala, 2003, “Grain Size Influence on Ultrasonic Velocities and Attenuation,” NDT & E International, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 1–5.
Brosey, W.D., 1983, “Ultrasonic Determination of Grain Size in Uranium,” Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 2A, pp. 399–1409.
Chowdhury, S.G., S. Datta, B.R. Kumar, P.K. De, and R.N. Ghosh, 2007, “Randomization of Texture During Recrystallization of Austenite in a Cold Rolled Metastable Austenitic Stainless Steel,” Materials Science and Engi-neering: A, Vol. 443, Nos. 1–2, pp. 114–119.
Euh, K., Y.C. Kim, K. Shin, S. Lee, and N.J. Kim, 2003, “Effect of Tempering on Hardness Improvement in a VC/Steel Surface-alloyed Material Fabricated by High-energy Electron-beam Irradiation,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 346, Nos. 1–2, pp. 228–236.
Fargas, G., M. Anglada, and A. Mateo, 2009, “Effect of the Annealing Temperature on the Mechanical Properties, Formability and Corrosion Resistance of Hot-rolled Duplex Stainless Steel,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 209, No. 4, pp. 1770–1782.
Forouzan, F., A. Najafizadeh, A. Kermanpur, A. Hedayati, and R. Surkiali-abad, 2010, “Production of Nano/submicron Grained AISI 304L Stainless Steel through the Martensite Reversion Process,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 527, Nos. 27–28, pp. 7334–7339.
Gazder, A.A., S.S. Hazra, and E.V. Pereloma, 2011, “Annealing Behaviour and Mechanical Properties of Severely Deformed Interstitial Free Steel,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 530, December pp. 492–503.
Hosseini, S., A. Najafizadeh, and A. Kermanpur, 2011, “Producing the Nano/Ultrafine Grained Low Carbon Steel by Martensite Process using Plane Strain Compression,” Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 211, No. 2, pp. 230–236.
Huang, C., K. Li, W. Lin, and M.C. Liao, 2005, “The Behavior of Electro-plated Hard-chromium on Cr-Mo Steel Subject to Long-term Annealing at 250 °C,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 403, Nos. 1–2, pp. 222–226.
Huber, J., and M. Hatherly, 2013, “Nucleation of Recrystallized Grains in Heavily Cold-worked α-brass,” Metal Science, July pp. 665–669.
Irani, M., and A.K. Taheri, “Effect of Forging Temperature on Homo-geneity of Microstructure and Hardness of Precision Forged Steel
Spur Gear,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, Vol. 112, No. 3, 2008, pp. 1099–1105.
Kang, S., Y.S. Jung, J.H. Jun, and Y,K, Lee, 2010, “Effects of Recrystalliza-tion Annealing Temperature on Carbide Precipitation, Microstructure, and Mechanical Properties in Fe-18Mn-0.6 C-1.5 Al TWIP Steel,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 527, No. 3, pp. 745–751.
Khodabakhshi, F., and M. Kazeminezhad, 2011, “The Annealing Phenomena and Thermal Stability of Severely Deformed Steel Sheet,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 528, No. 15, pp. 5212–5218.
Kimura, A., R. Kasada, R. Sugano, A. Hasegawa, and H. Matsui, 2000, “Annealing Behavior of Irradiation Hardening and Microstructure in Helium-implanted Reduced Activation Martensitic Steel,” Journal of Nuclear Materials, Vols. 283–287, Part 2, pp. 827–831.
Kumar, A., T. Jayakumar, B. Raj, and K. K. Ray, 2003, “Characterization of Solutionizing Behavior in VT14 Titanium Alloy using Ultrasonic Velocity and Attenuation Measurements,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 360, No. 1, pp.58–64.
Lee, D.G., K. Lee, and S. Lee, 2006, “Effects of Tempering on Microstruc-ture, Hardness, and Fracture Toughness of VC/Steel Surface Composite Fabricated by High-energy Electron Beam Irradiation,” Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 201, No. 3, pp. 1296–1301.
Li, Z., T.S. Wang, X.J. Zhang, and F.C. Zhang, 2012, “Annealing Softening Behaviour of Cold-rolled Low-carbon Steel with a Dual-phase Structure and the Resulting Tensile Properties,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 552 August pp. 204–210.
Liu, J.B., X.H. Liu, W. Liu, Y.W. Zeng, and K.Y. Shu, 2010a, “Microstruc-ture and Hardness Evolution During Isothermal Process at 700 °C for Fe-24Mn-0.7 Si-1.0 Al TWIP Steel,” Materials Characterization, Vol. 61, No. 12, pp. 1356–1358.
Liu, Y., J. Fang, D. Liu, Z. Lu, F. Liu, S. Chen, and C.T. Liu, 2010b, “Formation of Oxides Particles in Ferritic Steel by using Gas-atomized Powder,” Journal of Nuclear Materials, Vol. 396, No. 1, pp. 86–93.
Lukomski, T. and T. Stepinski, 2010, “Steel Hardness Evaluation based on Ultrasound Velocity Measurements,” Insight – Non-Destructive Testing and Condition Monitoring, Vol. 52, No. 11, pp. 592–596.
Medvedeva, A., J. Bergström, S. Gunnarsson, and J. Andersson, 2009, “High-temperature Properties and Microstructural Stability of Hot-work Tool Steels,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 523, Nos. 1–2, pp. 39–46.
Mutlu, I., E. Oktay, and S. Ekinci, 2009, “Effect of Grain Size on the Ultra-sonic Parameters in Stainless Steels,” International Journal of Microstructure and Materials Properties, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 423–435.
Negm, N.Z., 2006, “Effect of Annealing Temperature on Properties of H2/N2 rf Plasma-treated Stainless Steel,” Surface and Coatings Technology, Vol. 201, Nos. 3–4, pp. 1763–1767.
Palanichamy, P., A. Joseph, T. Jayakumar, and B. Raj, 1995, “Ultrasonic Velocity Measurements for Estimation of Grain Size in Austenitic Stainless Steel,” NDT & E International, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 179–185.
Rezaee, A., A. Najafizadeh, A. Kermanpur, and M. Moallemi, 2011, “The Influence of Reversion Annealing Behavior on the Formation of Nanograined Structure in AISI 201L Austenitic Stainless Steel through Martensite Treatment,” Materials & Design, Vol. 32, No. 8, pp. 4437–4442.
Rosen, M., L. Ives, S. Ridder, F. Biancaniello, and R. Mehrabian, 1985, “Correlation between Ultrasonic and Hardness Measurements in Aged Aluminum Alloy 2024,” Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 74, No. 1, pp. 1–10.
Sarpün, İ.H., V. Ozkan, S. Tuncel, and R. Unal, 2011, “Determination of Mean Grain Size by Ultrasonic Methods of Tungsten Carbide and Boron Carbide Composites Sintered at Various Temperatures,” Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on NDT, Chania, Greece, 11–14 October.
Sarpün, İ.H., M.S. Kılıçkaya, and S. Tuncel, 2005, “Mean Grain Size Deter-mination in Marbles by Ultrasonic Velocity Techniques,” NDT & E Inter-national, Vol. 38, No. 1, pp. 21–25.
Saunders, D.S., 1980, “The Low Temperature Annealing of 7.62 mm Brass Cartridge Cases: Stress Corrosion Susceptibility,” Australia Department of Defense Report MRL-R-778, DTIC Document.
Sayed, A.A., and S. Kheirandish, 2012, “Affect of the Tempering Tempera-ture on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Dual Phase Steels,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 532, January pp. 21–25.
Yang, K., H. Gou, B. Zhang, R. Huang, H. Li, M. Lu, X. Zhang, and J. Zhang, 2009, “Microstructures and Fracture Features of Cold-rolled Low Carbon Steel Sheet after Annealing and Mechanical Stress Concurrently Loaded,” Materials Science and Engineering: A, Vol. 502, No. 1, pp. 126–130.
158 Page Views
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares