Article Periodicals » Materials Evaluation » Article
Vibration-based Nondestructive Testing to Determine Viability of Parts Produced with Recycled Thermoplastic Composites

The economic impact of the nearly half-trillion dollar recycling and reuse industry notwithstanding, recycling and reprocessing of materials holds significant socio-environmental value. However, variances in physical or mechanical properties in reprocessed material can be an impediment to the adoption of recycled material in industrial applications. Operating ranges of systems from the rocker-bogie suspension on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Curiosity Rover to agitator assemblies in everyday washing machines are constrained by system resonance and damping. Variances beyond design specifications from material reprocessing could render these systems inoperable. In a previous study, the authors demonstrated the viability of recycled carbon fiber (RCF) as a raw material for making long fiber thermoplastic (LFT) compounds using polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) as the matrix resin. The mechanical properties achieved with recycled fibers were similar to those achieved with commercial LFT material. The current study investigates the influence of reprocessing carbon fiber PPS (C/PPS) thermoplastics over six generations (control plus five) on dynamic behavior in terms of resonant frequency and damping by subjecting C/PPS from each generation to vibration excitation in a free-free boundary condition. Very little change in the vibration response of C/PPS was observed, with successive generations further corroborating the viability of RCF for LFT compounds.

References
  • Airbus, “Airbus A350 XWB,” Airbus, www.airbus.com/aircraftfamilies/passengeraircraft/a350xwbfamily, accessed May 2014.
  • Avitabile, P., “Experimental Modal Analysis: A Simple Non-mathematical Presentation,” Sound and Vibration, Vol. 35, No. 1, 2001, pp. 20–31.
  • Dossing, O., “Structural Testing Part 1: Mechanical Mobility Measurements,”Brüel & KjЊr, www.bksv.com/doc/br0458.pdf, 1988.
  • Chung, D.D.L., “Materials for Vibration Damping,” Journal Of Materials Science, Vol. 36, No. 24, 2001, pp. 5733–5737.
  • Crocker, M.J., M.D. Rao, P.K. Raju, and X. Yan, “Measurement of Damping of Graphite Epoxy Composite Materials and Structural Joints,” NASA-CR-183802, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, June 1989.
  • De Batist, R., “High Damping Materials: Mechanisms and Applications,” Le Journal de Physique Colloques, Vol. 44, No. C9, 1983, pp. 39–50.
  • EPA, “Recycling is Working in the United States,” EPA530-F-02-005, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., January 2002.
  • Favaloro, M.R., “Thermoplastic Composites for Aerospace,” The IAPD Magazine, April/May 2010.
  • Gordon, Jr., J.M., Total Quality Process Control for Injection Molding, second edition, Wiley, Hoboken, New Jersey, 2010.
  • Hearn, G., and R.B. Testa, “Modal Analysis for Damage Detection in Structures,” Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 117, No. 10, 1991, pp. 3042–3063.
  • Huda, M.S., A.K. Mohanty, L.T. Drzal, E. Schut, and M. Misra, “‘Green’ Composites from Recycled Cellulose and Poly(lactic Acid): Physicomechanical and Morphological Properties Evaluation,” Journal of Materials Science, Vol. 40, 2005, pp. 4221–4229.
  • Janney, M., J. Ledger, and U. Vaidya, “Long Fiber Thermoplastic Composites from Recycled Carbon Fiber,” SAMPE Tech, Charleston, South Carolina, 22–25 October 2012.
  • Janney, M., U. Vaidya, R. Sutton, and H. Ning, “Re-grind Study of PPS-based Long Fiber Thermoplastic Composites,” SAMPE, Seattle, Washington, 2–5 June 2014.
  • La Mantia, F.P., and M. Morreale, “Green Composites: A Brief Review,” Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, Vol. 42, June 2011, pp. 579–588.
  • Le Duigou, A., I. Pillin, A. Bourmaud, P. Davies, and C. Baley, “Effect of Recycling on Mechanical Behaviour of Biocompostable Flax/Poly(l-lactide) Composites,” Composites Part A: Applied Scienceand Manufacturing, Vol. 39, No. 9, 2008, pp. 1471–1478.
  • Pimenta, S., and S.T. Pinho, “Recycling Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers for Structural Applications: Technology Review and Market Outlook,” Waste Management, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2011, pp. 378–392.
  • PolyOne, “OnForce LFT Long Fiber Compounds,” Processing Guide, PolyOne Corp., Avon Lake, Ohio, 2011.
  • Sloan, J., “Market Outlook: Surplus in Carbon Fiber’s Future?” High-Performance Composites, 1 March 2013.
  • Ticona Celstran, “Celstran Long Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics Injection Molding Guide,” Ticona Celstran, Inc., www.hipolymers.com.ar/pdfs/celstran/procesamiento/celstran%20injection%20molding.pdf, accessed January 2014.
  • Weber, C.D., S. Ledebuhr, and G. Barum, “One Piece DLFT Automotive Running Boards,” Society of Plastic Engineers ANTEC, Troy, Michigan, 9–10 September 2003.

 

Metrics
Usage Shares
Total Views
141 Page Views
Total Shares
0 Tweets
141
0 PDF Downloads
0
0 Facebook Shares
Total Usage
141