Nondestructive Potentiostatic Etching Technique for
the Detection and Quantification of Preexisting
Plastic Strain in Austenitic Stainless Steel
Publication: Publication Date: 1 September 2016
Nondestructive testing (NDT) of preexisting plastic
strain with high accuracy and low heat-to-heat
variation is important for ensuring the integrity of
structural components. In the present study, a
potentiostatic etching technique (1N HNO3 at
–600 mVSCE, 308 K [35 °C] for 20 min) was
developed for NDT of plastic strain in austenitic
stainless steel. It was found that the dissolution
rate of the alloy is strongly dependent on crystallographic
orientation with the developed potentiostatic
etching condition, and the potentiostatic
etching condition was employed to visualize slight
and local disarray of crystal structure caused by
plastic deformation. Using this etching technique,
preexisting plastic strain in austenitic stainless
steel can be detected and quantified based on the
density of etched deformation twins for samples
strained at room temperature. It was also found
that preexisting plastic strain in austenitic stainless
steel that was deformed at 523 K (250 °C) could be
detected and quantified using the etched slip line
density. Over the temperature range of straining
from 303 to 373 K (30 to 100 °C), the etched deformation
twin density drastically decreased as
temperature was increased. This result indicates a
notable slip-twinning transition in SUS316NG over
the temperature range of 303 to 373 K (30 to 100 °C).
This technique was also found to have high sensitivity
and low heat dependency in detection of
- Allain, S., J.-P. Chateau, and O. Bouaziz, “Correlations Between the Calculated Stacking Fault Energy and the Plasticity Mechanisms in Fe-Mn-C Alloys,” Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 387–389, 2004, pp. 158–162.
- Binnig, G., C.F. Quate, and Ch. Gerber, “Atomic Force Microscope,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 56, 1986, pp. 930–933.
- Bolling, G.F., and R.H. Richman, “Continual Mechanical Twinning, Part I: Formal Description,” Acta Metallurgica, Vol. 13, 1965a, pp. 709–722.
- Bolling, G.F., and R.H. Richman, “Continual Mechanical Twinning, Part II: Standard Experiments,” Acta Metallurgica, Vol. 13, 1965b, pp. 723–743.
- Byun, T.S., “On the Stress Dependence of Partial Dislocation Separation and Deformation Microstructure in Austenitic Stainless Steels,” Acta Materialia, Vol. 51, 2003, pp. 3063–3071.
- Byun, T.S., E.H. Lee, and J.D. Hunn, “Plastic Deformation in 316LN Stainless Steel – Characterization of Deformation Microstructures,” Journal of Nuclear Materials, Vol. 321, 2003, pp. 29–39.
- Christian, J.W., and S. Mahajan, “Deformation Twinning,” Progress in Materials Science, Vol. 39, 1995, pp. 1–157.
- IAEA, “Earthquake Preparedness and Response for Nuclear Power Plants,” Safety Report Series No. 66, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, 2011.
- JANTI, “Interim Report of Structural Integrity of the Nuclear Power Station after the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake,” Japan Nuclear Technology Institute, Structural Integrity Assessment Committee for Nuclear Components damaged by Earthquake Tokyo, Japan, April 2009 (in Japanese).
- Kamaya, M., “Observation of Low-cycle Fatigue Damage by EBSD (Microstructural Change in SUS316 and STS410),” Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers A, Vol. 77, 2011, pp. 154–169.
- Kireeva, L.V., and Y.I. Chumlyakov, “Effect of Nitrogen and Stacking-fault Energy on Twinning in  Single Crystals of Austenitic Stainless Steels,” Physics of Metals and Metallography, Vol. 108, 2009, pp. 298–309.
- Komazaki, S., Y. Watanabe, and T. Shoji, “Changes in Slip Band Etching Characteristics of Inconel 718 due to High-temperature Low-cycle Fatigue,” Transactions of the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers A, Vol. 63, 1997, pp. 1481–1488.
- Koyama, M., T. Sawaguchi, and K. Tsuzaki, “TWIP Effect and Plastic Instability Condition in an Fe-Mn-C Austenitic Steel,” Tetsu-to-Hagané, Vol. 98, 2012, pp. 229–236.
- Mohammed, A.A.S., E.A. El-Danaf, and A.A. Radwan, “Equivalent Twinning Criteria for FCC Alloys under Uniaxial Tension at High Temperatures,” Journal of Materials Science and Engineering A, Vol. 457, 2007, pp. 373–379.
- NISA, “Measures of the Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency concerning the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, Affected by the Niigataken Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (Interim Report),” Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency, Tokyo, Japan, February 2009.
- Park, K.-T., G. Kim, S.K. Kim, S.W. Lee, S.W., Hwang, and C.S. Lee, “On the Transitions of Deformation Modes of Fully Austenitic Steels at Room Temperature,” Metals and Materials International, Vol. 16, 2010, pp. 1–6.
- Remy, L., “Kinetics of F.C.C. Deformation Twinning and Its Relationship to Stress-strain Behavior,” Acta Metallurgica, Vol. 26, 1978, pp. 443–51.
- Schramm, R.E., and R.P. Reed, “Stacking Fault Energies of Seven Commercial Austenitic Stainless Steels,” Metallurgical Transactions A, Vol. 6A, 1975, pp. 1345–1351.
- Yoshitake, M., T. Tsuchiyama, and S. Takaki, “Effect of Carbon and Nitrogen on Work Hardening and Deformation Microstructure in Stable Austenitic Stainless Steels,” Tetsu-to-Hagané, Vol. 98, 2012, pp. 223–228.
- Zhang, Y., N.R. Tao, and K. Lu, “Effects of Stacking Fault Energy, Strain Rate and Temperature on Microstructure and Strength of Nano Structured Cu-Al Alloys Subjected to Plastic Deformation,” Acta Materialia, Vol. 59, 2011, pp. 6048–6058.
61 Page Views
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares