Multilayer Frequency Selective Surface-based
Sensing for Structural Health Monitoring of Layered
Publication: Publication Date: 1 October 2016Testing Method: ,
Recently, frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) have
been shown to have potential as embedded structural
health monitoring (SHM) sensors. An FSS is
an array of metallic elements that provides a
filtering response to incident electromagnetic
energy. This filtering response, caused by inductive
and capacitive coupling between the elements,
depends on the FSS geometry (that is, element
shape, spacing, and dimensions) and local (to the
FSS) environment (that is, material properties,
temperature, and so on). Consequently, this
dependency can be utilized for SHM sensing.
Previous work has shown that FSS-based sensors
can be used to detect delaminations and disbonds
in layered media because of the effect of the
delamination on the capacitance of the FSS.
Additionally, it was found that this sensing capability
is limited to the region local to the FSS,
limiting the FSS’s sensing ability in larger structures.
Thus, this investigation proposes the use of
multiple FSS layers located throughout a layered
structure to provide wider sensing coverage and
allow different regions of the structure to be independently
monitored. To accomplish this, a series
of simulations and measurements were conducted
on a set of two FSS sensors integrated into a
layered dielectric structure. Each sensor was
designed to have different resonant frequencies,
allowing the two sensors to be individually
monitored. Using full wave simulation, it was found
that the frequency response of a given FSS sensor
is more sensitive to local delaminations, while FSS
sensors located elsewhere in the structure remain
essentially unaffected. This indicates that multiple
FSS sensors can be used to provide broad sensing
coverage of a layered structure. Simulated and
measured results were in good agreement with
respect to the effect of delaminations on resonant
frequency, but resonant depth was found to be
less consistent between measurement and simulation.
As such, the use of resonant depth for delamination
monitoring may not be a reliable sensing
- Arritt, B.J., A.F. Starr, and D.R. Smith, “Electromagnetic Performance of Mechanically Loaded Composite Metamaterials,” International Conference on Composite Materials Edinburgh, Scotland, 27–31 July 2009.
- Barth, M., F. Schubert, and B. Koehler, “Where X-ray Imaging Fails – Delamination, Crack, and Micro-pore Detection using Ultrasonic Reflection Tomography in a Scanning Acoustic Microscope,” Proceedings of the Nuclear Science Symposium, Dresden, Germany, October 2008, pp. 577–581.
- Callaghan, P., E.A. Parker, and R.J. Langley, “Influence of Supporting Dielectric Layers on the Transmission Properties of Frequency Selective Surfaces,” IEEE Proceedings H – Microwave, Antennas, and Propagation, Vol. 138, No. 5, 1991, pp. 448–454.
- Donnell, K.M., and R. Zoughi, “Application of Embedded Dual-loaded Modulated Scatterer Technique (MST) to Multilayer Structures,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 61, No. 10, 2012, pp. 2799–2806.
- Foudazi, A., K.M. Donnell, and M.T. Ghasr, “Application of Active Microwave Thermography to Delamination Detection,” Proceedings of the International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, Montevideo, Uruguay, 12–15 May 2014, pp. 1567–1571.
- Hall, R., R. Mittra, and K. Mitzner, “Analysis of Multilayered Periodic Structures using Generalized Scattering Matrix Theory,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 36, No. 4, 1988, pp. 511–517.
- Inan, U.S., and A. Inan, Engineering Electromagnetics, first edition, Pearson, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 1998.
- Jang, S.D., B.W. Kang, and J. Kim, “Frequency Selective Surface Based Passive Wireless Sensor for Structural Health Monitoring,” Smart Materials and Structures, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2013.
- Kinzel, E., “Design of a Frequency-selective Surface Strain Sensor,” IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, Memphis, Tennessee, 6–11 July 2014, pp. 2074–2075.
- Liu, S.-C., M. Tomizuka, and G. Ulsoy, “Strategic Issues in Sensors and Smart Structures,” Structural Control Health Monitoring, Vol. 13, No. 6, 2006, pp. 946–957.
- Mathews, M.J., “Study of Delamination in Fiber Reinforced Composite Laminates,” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, December 2007.
- Melik, R., E. Unal, N.K. Perkgoz, C. Puttlitz, and H.V. Demir, “Flexible Metamaterials for Wireless Strain Sensing,” Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 95, No. 18, 2009.
- Moallem, M., and K. Sarabandi, “Miniaturized-element Frequency Selective Surfaces for Millimeter-wave to Terahertz Applications,” IEEE Transactions on Terahertz Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2012, pp. 333–339.
- Munk, B.A., Frequency Selective Surfaces: Theory and Design, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey, 2000.
- Parker, E.A., “The Gentleman’s Guide to Frequency Selective Surfaces,” 17th Q.M.W. Antenna Symposium, London, United Kingdom, April 1991.
- Pieper, D.F., and K.M. Donnell, “Application of Frequency Selective Surfaces for Inspection of Layered Structures,” 2015 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, Pisa, Italy, 11–14 May 2015, pp. 1204–1209.
- Pieper, D., K.M. Donnell, O. Abdelkarim, and M.A. ElGawady, “Embedded FSS Sensing for Structural Health Monitoring of Bridge Columns,” Proceedings of the 2016 IEEE International Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, Taipei, Taiwan, 23–26 May 2016.
- Rees, D.W.A., Basic Engineering Plasticity: An Introduction with Engineering and Manufacturing Applications, Elsevier, Ltd., Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2006.
- Sarabandi, K., and N. Behdad, “A Frequency Selective Surface with Miniaturized Elements,” IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 55, No. 5, 2007, pp. 1239–1245.
- Uttamchandani, D., “Fibre-optic sensors and Smart Structures: Developments and Prospects,” Electronics & Communication Engineering Journal, Vol. 6, No. 5, 1994, pp. 237–246.
150 Page Views
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares