Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) – Automated 2D Chemical Analysis of Concrete

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a combination of laser ablation and optical emission spectroscopy. Due to the possibility of direct measurements on the sample surface with a minimum of sample preparation investigations of building materials can be conducted quite fast. In combination with a scanning technique (translation stage or scanning mirrors head) 2D element distributions of harmful species like chlorides and alkalis are evaluated with a sub-mm resolution. By scanning a surface of typically 100 mm x 100 mm the heterogeneity of the material may be considered. LIBS is capable to identify hot spots in element concentration with a resolution of 0.1 mm or even smaller. A LIBS-system for the on-site application on building materials is, in cooperation with system developers and companies which will use this technique for investigation on real structures, under test at BAM. We present an example. Further work will focus on providing guidelines to establish LIBS as a standard procedure for chemical investigations of building materials.

References

[1] Hahn, D. W. and N. Omenetto (2012). "Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Part II: Review of Instrumental and Methodological Approaches to Material Analysis and Applications to Different Fields." Appl. Spectrosc. 66(4): 347-419.

[2] Millar, S., Wilsch, G., Eichler, T., Gottlieb, C., & Wiggenhauser, H. (2015). Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) im Bauwesen - automatisierte Baustoffanalyse. Beton- und Stahlbetonbau, 110(8), 501- 510. doi:10.1002/best.201500030.

[3] Ralchenko, Yu., Kramida, A.E., Reader, J. and NIST ASD Team (2008). NIST Atomic Spectra Database (version 3.1.5), [Online]. Available: http://physics.nist.gov/asd3 [2009, April 29]. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD.

[4] Noll, R., Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy - Fundamentals and applications, 2012, Springer Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg.

[5] Wilsch G, Weritz F, Schaurich D, and Wiggenhauser H (2005) Determination of chloride content in concrete structureswith laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, Constr Build Mater 19:724-730.

[6] Weritz, F., S. Ryahi, et al. (2005). "Quantitative determination of sulfur content in concrete with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy." Spectrochimica Acta Part B-Atomic Spectroscopy 60(7-8): 1121-1131.

[7] Weritz F, Schaurich D, Taffe A, and Wilsch G (2006) Effect of heterogeneity on the quantitative determination of trace elements in concrete, Anal Bioanal Chem 385: 248-255.

[8] Wilsch, G., D. Schaurich, et al. (2011). Imaging Laser Analysis of Building Materials - Practical Examples. Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, Vols 30a and 30b 1335: 1315-1322.

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