Article Article
Feasibility Study on Adapting a Machine Learning Based Multi-Sensor Data Fusion Approach for Honeycomb Detection in Concrete

We present the results of a machine learning (ML)- inspired data fusion approach, applied to multi-sensory nondestructive testing (NDT) data. Our dataset consists of Impact-Echo (IE), Ultrasonic Pulse Echo (US) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) measurements collected on large-scale concrete specimens with built–in simulated honeycombing defects. In a previous study we were able to improve the detectability of honeycombs by fusing the information from the three different sensors with the density based clustering algorithm DBSCAN. We demonstrated the advantage of data fusion in reducing the false positives up to 10% compared to the best single sensor, thus, improving the detectability of the defects. The main objective of this contribution is to investigate the generality, i.e. whether the conclusions from one specimen can be adapted to the other. The effectiveness of the proposed approach on a separate full-scale concrete specimen was evaluated.


[1] M. K. Lim and H. Cao, "Combining multiple NDT methods to improve testing effectiveness," Construction and Building Materials,  vol. 38, pp. 1310-1315, 8 July 2011.

[2] N. Gucunski, F. A. Romero, P. Shokouhi and a. J. Makresias, "Complementary Impact Echo and Ground Penetrating Radar Evaluation of Bridge Decks on I-84 Interchange in Connecticut," Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics,  pp. 1-10, 2005.

[3] A. Taffe, B. Hillemeieer and A. Walther, "Condition Assessment of a 45-year old prestressed concrete bridge using NDT and verification of the result," in NDE/NDT for Highway and Bridges: Structural Materials Technology (SMT) , New York, USA, 2010.

[4] A. Taffe, A. Gardei, M. Krause, C. Maierhofer and H. Wiggenhauser, "Automatisierung zerstörungsfreier Prüfverfahren für das Bauwesen," Materialprüfung,  vol. 46, no. 7-8, pp. 397-403, Juli 2004.

[5] K. Reichling, M. Raupach, H. Wiggenhauser, M. Stoppel, G. Dobmann and J. Kurz, "BETOSCAN –  Robot controlled non-destructive diagnosis of reinforced concrete decks," in 7th International Symposium on Non Destructive testing in Civil Engineering proceedings , Nantes, France, 2009.

[6] J. HOŁA and K. Schabowicz, "State -of-the-art non-destructive methods for diagnostic testing of building structures –  anticipated development trends," Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering,  no. Volume 10, Issue 3, p. 5– 18, 2010.

[7] N. Gucunski, A. Maher and H. Ghasemi, "Condition assessment of concrete bridge decks using a fully autonomous robotic NDE platform," Bridge Structures,  no. 9, pp. 123-130, 2013.

[8] C. Völker and P. Shokouhi, "Multi sensor data fusion approach for automatic Honeycomb detection in concrete," NDT&E International,  vol. 71, pp. 54-60, April 2015.

[9] M. J. Sansalone and . W. B. Streett , Impact-Echo: Nondestructive Evaluation of Concrete and Masonry, University of Michigan: Bullbrier Press, 1997.

[10] J. Blitz and G. Simpson, Ultrasonic Methods of Non-destructive Testing, 1 ed., London: Champman & Hall, 1996.

[11] H. M. Jol, Ground Penetrating Radar Theory and Applications, Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science BV, 2009.

[12] M. Ester, H. P. Kriegel, J. Sander and X. Xu, "A density-based algorithm for discovering clusters in large spatial databases with noise," in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (KDD-96). , Portland, Oregon, USA, 1996.

[13] H. Wiggenhauser, "Advanced NDT methods for the assessment of concrete structures," in 7th International Symposium on Non Destructive testing in Civil Engineering proceedings , Nantes, France, 2009.

[14] R. Beutel , H. W. Reinhardt, C. U. Grosse, A. Glaubitt, M. Krause, C. Maierhofer, D. Algernon, H. Wiggenhauser and M. Schickert, "Comparative Performance Tests and Validation of NDT Methods," Nondestructive Evaluation,  pp. 59-65, 27 June 2008.

[15] A. G. Davis, "The nondestructive impulse response test in North America: 1985-2001," NDT&E international,  vol. 36, pp. 185-193, 2003.

[16] J. H. Bungey, M. G. Grantham and S. Millard, Testing of Concrete in Structures: Fourth Edition, New York: CRC Press, 2006.

[17] H. S. Müller, M. Fenchel, H. Wiggenhauser and C. Maierhofer , "Zerstörungsfreie Ortung von Gefügest.rungen im Beton," Beuth, Berlin, 2010.

Usage Shares
Total Views
139 Page Views
Total Shares
0 Tweets
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares
Total Usage