Longitudinal and Shear Velocity Measurements in a Woven Fiber Reinforced Laminated Composite

Carbon fiber reinforced laminated composites offer a strong, lightweight alternative to metals, such as steel and aluminum. Companies incorporating this high strength to weight ratio material often apply non-destructive testing methods while inspecting their product for quality assurance, but there is also a desire to extend the application space of nondestructive testing to include methods that provide information about the final part’s processed properties. Studies performed by Markham [1], Reynolds and Wilkinson [2] and Rokhlin and Wang [3] have developed ultrasound methods for determining the elastic constants associated with a part manufactured using unidirectional fiber material. The current study discusses a through transmission technique, and both the longitudinal and the shear waves are observed in a single C-scan. The technique provides insight as to how the ultrasonic wave scatters as it travels through the laminated composite. This research focuses on the experimental setup, and the criteria used for determining the proper scan parameters. In particular, results are discussed for varying water paths and transducer orientations with respect to the part surface.

  1. Markham, M.F., “Measurement of the Elastic Constants of Fibre Composites by Ultrasonics,” Division of Molecular Science, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, Middlesex, England, Composites, March, 1970.
  2. Reynolds, W.N. and S.J. Wilkinson, “The Analysis of Fibre-Reinforced Porous Composite Materials by the Measurement of Ultrasonic Wave Velocities,” Nondestructive Centre, AERE Harwell, Didcot Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, Ultrasonics, IPC Press, July, 1978.
  3. Rokhlin, S.I. and W. Wang, “Double Through-Transmission Bulk Wave Method for Ultrasonic Phase Velocity Measurements and Determination of Elastic Constants of Composite Materials,” The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, American Journal Acoustics Society, 91, June 6, 1992.
  4. R.M. Jones, Mechanics of Composite Materials: Second Edition. Taylor and Francis, Inc., Philadelphia, PA, 1999.
  5. Rokhlin, S.I. and W. Wang, “Ultrasonic Evaluation of In-Plane and Out-of-Plane Elastic Properties of Composite Materials,” Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, 8B, D.O. Thompson and D.E. Chimenti (Eds.), Plenum, New York, 1989.
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