Effectiveness of Rejuvenators on Aged Asphalt Concrete using Ultrasonic Non-collinear Subsurface
Publication: Publication Date: 1 October 2015Testing Method:
Rejuvenators are products that aim to restore the physical and chemical properties of aged bitumen. To evaluate rejuvenators’ restorative properties of aged asphalt concrete, artificially oven-aged (for 36 h at 408 K [135 °C]) asphalt concrete specimens were coated with a rejuvenator (10% by weight of the binder) and left to dwell for the following prescribed amounts of time: 3 to 6 days in 1-day increments, 1 to 8 weeks in 1-week increments, and 12 weeks. After its dwell time, each specimen was evaluated using non-collinear mixing of critically refracted dilatational ultrasonic waves. The frequency ratio, f2/f1, at which the interaction took place and the normalized nonlinear wave generation parameter, β/β0, were recorded and compared against a reference plot. The reference plot was created using asphalt concrete samples (with no rejuvenator) subjected to increasing levels of oxidative oven-aging. It was observed that the samples with a dwell time of five weeks and greater exhibited material response similar to the reference virgin specimen. From one to four weeks, the nonlinear parameters become closer to the virgin parameters with each successive week. The approach appears to be capable of estimating the rejuvenators’ capacity of restoring the material response of the original asphalt concrete with increasing dwell time. Potential application to pavement maintenance is presented and discussed.
- Basatskaya, L., and L.N. Ermolov, “Theoretical Study of Ultrasonic Longitudinal Subsurface Waves in Solid Media,” Soviet Journal of Nondestructive Testing, Vol. 16, 1981, pp. 524–530.
- Boyer, R.E., “Asphalt Rejuvenators ‘Fact, or Fable’,“ Asphalt Institute, Panama City, Florida, 2000.
- Braham, A.F., W.G. Buttlar, T.R. Clyne, M.O. Marasteanu, and M.I. Turos, “The Effect of Long-term Laboratory Aging on Asphalt Concrete Fracture Energy,” Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, Vol. 78, 2009, pp. 417–454.
- Bray, D.E., and R.K. Stanley, Nondestructive Evaluation, revised ed., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 1997.
- Brown, E.R., “Preventive Maintenance of Asphalt Concrete Pavements,” Report No. 88-1, National Center for Asphalt Technology, Auburn, Alabama, 1988.
- Brown, E.R., and R.R. Johnson, “Evaluation of rejuvenators for Bituminous Pavements,” AFCEC-TR-76-3, Air Force Civil Engineering Center, Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, 1976.
- Buenrostro-Gonzalez, E., H. Groenzin, C. Lira-Galeana, and O. C. Mullins, “The Overriding Chemical Principles that Define Asphaltenes,” Energy Fuels, Vol. 15, No. 4, 2001, pp. 972–978.
- Chaki, S., W. Ke, and H. Demouveau, “Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Critically Refracted Longitudinal Beam,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 53, No. 1, 2013, pp. 65–69.
- Croxford, A.J., P.D. Wilcox, B.W. Drinkwater, and P.B. Nagy, “The Use of Non-collinear Mixing for Nonlinear Ultrasonic Detection of Plasticity and Fatigue,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 126, No. 5, 2009, pp. EL117–EL122.
- Demcenko, A., R. Akkerman, P.B. Nagy, and R. Loendersloot, “Noncollinear Wave Mixing for Non-linear Ultrasonic Detection of Physical Aging in PVC,” NDT&E International, Vol. 49, 2012, pp. 34–39.
- García, Á., E. Schlangen, and M. Van de Ven, “Properties of Capsules Containing Rejuvenators for their Use in Asphalt Concrete,” Fuel, Vol. 90, No. 2, 2011, pp. 583–591.
- Goldberg, Z.A., “Interaction of Plane Longitudinal and Transverse Elastic Waves,” Soviet Physical Acoustics, Vol. 6, No. 3, 1960, pp. 306–310.
- Jones, G.L., and D.R. Kobett, “Interaction of Elastic Waves in an Isotropic Solid,” Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 35, No. 5, 1963, pp. 5–10.
- Johnson, P.A., T.J. Shankland, R.J. O’Connell, and J.N. Albright, “Nonlinear Generation of Elastic Waves in Crystalline Rock,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 92, No. B5, 1987, pp. 3597–3602.
- Johnson, P.A., and T.J. Shankland, “Nonlinear Generation of Elastic Waves in Granite and Sandstone: Continuous Wave and Travel Time Observations,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 9, No. B12, 1989, pp. 17729–17733.
- Karlsson, R., and U. Isacsson, “Material-related Aspects of Asphalt Recycling—State-of-the-art,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 18, No. 1, 2006, pp. 81–92.
- Landau, L.D., and E.M. Lifshitz, Theory of Elasticity, second ed.. Pergamon Press, New York, New York, 1970.
- Langenberg, K., P. Fellinger, and R. Marklein, “On the Nature of the Socalled Subsurface Longitudinal Wave and/or the Subsurface Longitudinal ‘Creeping’ Wave,” Research in Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 2, 1990, pp. 59–81.
- Lin, J., P. Guo, L. Wan, and S. Wu, “Laboratory Investigation of Rejuvenator Seal Materials on Performances of Asphalt Mixtures,” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 37, December 2012, pp. 25–41.
- Long, R.B., “The Concept of Asphaltenes,” Chapter 2, Chemistry of Asphaltenes, 1982, pp. 17–27.
- Maugin, G.A., “Shear Horizontal Surface Acoustic Waves in Solids,” Wave Phenomena: Recent Developments in Surface Acoustic Waves, Proceedings of European Mechanics Colloquium 226, University of Nottingham, U.K., 2–5 September 1987, pp. 158–172.
- McGovern, M., B. Behnia, W.G. Buttlar, and H. Reis, “Characterization of Asphalt Concrete Oxidative Aging – Part 1: Acoustic Emission Response and Ultrasonic Velocity and Attenuation Measurements,” Insight – Nondestructive Testing and Condition Monitoring, Vol. 55, No. 1.
- McGovern, M., B. Behnia, W.G. Buttlar, and H. Reis, “Characterization of Oxidative Aging in Asphalt Concrete using Non-collinear Ultrasonic Wave Mixing” Insight – Nondestructive Testing and Condition Monitoring, Vol. 56, No. 7, 2014a, pp. 367–374.
- McGovern, M.E., W.G. Buttlar, and H. Reis, “Estimation of Oxidative Aging in Asphalt Concrete Pavements using Non-collinear Wave Mixing of Critically Refracted Longitudinal Waves,” Insight – Nondestructive Testing and Condition Monitoring, Vol. 57, No. 1, 2014b, pp. 25–34.
- Murnaghan, F.D., Finite Deformation of an Elastic Solid, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, New York, 1951.
- Nagy, P.B., “Fatigue Damage Assessment by Nonlinear Ultrasonic Materials Characterization,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 36, Nos. 1–5, 1998, pp. 375–381.
- Nahar, S.N., J. Qiu, A.J.M. Schmets, E. Schlangen, M. Shirazi, M.F.C. Van de Ven, G. Schitter, and A. Scarpas, “Turning Back Time: Rheological and Microstructural Assessment of Rejuvenated Bitumen,” Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2014, pp. 52–62.
- Oldham, D.J., E.H. Fini, and T. Abu-Lebdeh, “Investigating the Rejuvenating Effect of Bio-binder on Recycled Asphalt Shingles,” Transportation Research Board 93rd Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers, 2014.
- Oliver, J.W.H., “Diffusion of Oils in Asphalts,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Product Research and Development, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1974, pp. 65–70.
- Pilarski, A., and J. Rose, “Utility of Subsurface Longitudinal Waves in Composite Material Characterization,” Ultrasonics, Vol. 27, No. 4, 1989, pp. 226–233.
- Rollins, Jr., F.R., L.H. Taylor, and P.H. Todd, Jr. “Ultrasonic Study of Three-phonon Interactions. II. Experimental Results,” Physical Review, Vol. 136, No. 3A, 1964, pp. A597–A601.
- Rollins, Jr., F.R., “Phonon Interactions and Ultrasonic Frequencies,” Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 53, No. 10, 1965, pp. 1534–1539.
- Rose, J.L., Ultrasonic Waves in Solid Media, Cambridge University Press, New York, New York, 1999.
- Rostler, F.S., and R.M. White, “Rejuvenation of Asphalt Pavements,” Technical Report, Materials Research and Development, Inc., Oakland, California, 1970.
- Scofield, L., and W.M. Timothy, “Product Evaluation: Bituminous Pavement Rejuvenator,” Arizona Transportation Research Center, Phoenix, Arizona, 1986.
- Shen, J., S. Amirkhanian, and B. Tang, “Effects of Rejuvenator on Performance-based Properties of Rejuvenated Asphalt Binder and Mixtures,” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 21, No. 5, 2006, pp. 958–964.
- Shen, J., S. Amirkhanian, and J. Aune Miller, “Effects of Rejuvenating Agents on Superpave Mixtures Containing Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement,” Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 19, No. 5, 2007, pp. 376–384.
- Taylor, L.H., and F.R. Rollins, Jr., “Ultrasonic Study of Three-phonon Interactions. I. Theory,” Physical Review, Vol. 136, No. 3A, 1964, pp. A591–A596.
- Viktorov, I.A., Rayleigh and Lamb Waves: Physical Theory and Applications (Ultrasonic Technology), Plenum Press, New York, New York, 1967.1, 2013, pp. 1–9.
152 Page Views
0 PDF Downloads
0 Facebook Shares