Comprehensive Model of Ultrasonic Scattering from Cubic Polycrystalline Media Consisting of Anisotropic Texture and Grain Elongation

The use of ultrasound to extract stress information in metallic parts has grown and evolved over the past decades. Many techniques stemming from the basic acoustoelastic foundations were developed in order to provide stress measurements in specific applications. Recently, theoretical developments have been undertaken which advance the acoustoelastic foundation to include stress-dependent attenuation effects (scattering). The stress-dependent attenuation arises from the stress-induced anisotropy effects which result in changes in grain scattering amplitudes. With these considerations, a pulse propagating a stressed medium can be modeled with accuracy in both amplitude and time. In this presentation, the stress-dependent attenuation is included in a previously developed stress measurement technique which utilizes focused immersion transducers. The stress measurements observe shear and longitudinal backwall amplitude changes caused by the coupled effects of stress variant phase and attenuation. Numerical results are presented for aluminum and iron. Experimental results are given for applied stresses in continuously welded rail and residual stress in train wheel coupons. Lastly, extensions are illustrated to highlight the overall potential of the technique.

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