A Nondestructive Evaluation Technique for Detecting, Locating and Quantifying Damage in Large Polymer Composite Structures Made of Electrically Non-Conductive Fibers and Carbon Nanotube Networks

A novel and practical nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique is presented to detect, locate and quantify damages that occur at one or several locations in large polymer composite structures made of electrically nonconductive fibers and carbon nanotube networks. In this technique, multiwalled carbon nanotubes were embedded into epoxy resin to make electrically conductive matrix. This modified matrix was used to prepare glass fabric/epoxy/MWCNT composite plates and kevlar fabric/epoxy/MWCNT composite plates. The large plate was mounted with grid points made from silver-epoxy paste. The electrical resistance values between the grid points were measured and used as a reference set. Drilled holes and impact damages were created in the large plates. These damages were detected, located and quantified based on the significant local variations in the distribution of electrical resistance change.

References
[1] Chou TW “Microstructural Design of Fiber Composites” (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press),1992. [2] McCombe GP, Rouse J, Trask RS, Withers PJ and Bond IP “X-ray damage characterization in self-healing fibre reinforced polymers” Composites: Part A 43 613–20, 2012. [3] Takeda S, Aoki Y, Ishikawa T, Takeda N and Kikukawa H “Structural health monitoring of composite wing structure during durability test” J.Compos Struct 79, 133–9, 2007. (a) (b) (c) (d) 87 [4] Masters JE “Damage detection in composite materials” Philadelphia PA American Society for Testing and Materials p 35, 1992. [5] Rizzo P and di Scalea FL “Acoustic emission monitoring of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymerbridge stay cables in large-scale testing” J.Exp Mech 41, 282–90, 2001. [6] Park G, Faffar CF, di Scalea FL and Coccia S “Performance assessment and validation of piezoelectric activesensors in structural health monitoring” J.Smart Mater Struct 15, 1673–83, 2006. [7] Kirkby E, de Oliveira R and Mänson JA “ Impact localization with FBG for a self healing carbon fibre composite structure” J.Compos Struct 94, 8–14 , 2011. [8] Balageas D, Fritzen CP and Guemes A “Structural health monitoring” ISTE L td, 2006. [9] Ebbesen TW, Lezec HJ, Hiura H, Bennett JW, Ghaemi HF, Thio T “Electrical conductivity of individual carbon nanotubes” Nature 382 54–6, 1996. [10] Berber S, Kwon YK and Tomanek D “Unusually high thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes” Phys Rev Lett 84 4613–6, 2000. [11] Ruoff RS and Lorents DC “Mechanical and thermal-properties of carbon nanotubes” Carbon 33, 925–930, 1995. [12] Fiedler B, Gojny FH, Wichmann MHG., Bauhofer W and Schulte K “Can carbon nanotubes be used to sense damage in composites?” Ann Chim Sci Matér 22, 81–94, 2004. [13] Böger L, Wichmann MHG, Meyer LO and Schulte K “Load and health monitoring in glass fibre reinforced composites with an electrically conductive nanocomposite epoxy matrix” J.Compos Sci Technol 68,1886–1894, 2008. [14] Li C, Thostenson ET and Chou TW “Sensors and actuators based on carbon nanotubes and their composites: A review” J. Compos Sci Technol 68, 1227-1249, 2008. [15] Gao SL, Zhuang RC, Zhang J, Liu JW and Mäder E “Glass Fibers with Carbon Nanotube Networks as Multifunctional Sensors” Adv Funct Mater 20, 1885–1893, 2010. [16] Gao SL, Zhuang RC, Zhang J, Liu JW and Mäder E “Glass Fibers with Carbon Nanotube Networks as Multifunctional Sensors” Adv. Functional Materials 20, 1885-1893, 2010. [17] Alexopoulos ND, Bartholome C, Poulin P and Marioli-Riga Z “Structural health monitoring of glass fiber reinforced composites using embedded carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers” J. Compos Sci Technol 70, 260–271, 2010. [18] Gao L, Chou TW, Thostenson ET and Zhang Z “ A comparative study of damage sensing in fiber composites using uniformly and non-uniformly dispersed carbon nanotubes” Carbon 48, 3788–3794, 2010. [19] Thostenson ET and Chou TW “Carbon nanotube networks: sensing of distributed strain and damage for life prediction and self-healing” Adv Mater 18, 2837-2841, 2006. [20] Thostenson ET and Chou TW “Real-time in situ sensing of damage evaluation in advanced fiber composites using carbon nanotubes networks” Nanotechnology 19, 215713, 2008. [21] Gao L, Chou TW, Thostenson ET, Zhang Z and Coulaud M “In situ sensing of impact damage in epoxy/glass fiber composites using percolating carbon nanotube networks” Carbon 49, 3382–3385, 2011. [22] Nofar M, Hoa SV and Pugh MD “Failure detection and monitoring in polymer matrix composites subjected to static and dynamic loads using carbon nanotube networks” Compos Sci Technol 69, 1599-1606, 2009. [23] Naghashpour, A and SV. Hoa. 2013” In-situ monitoring of through-thickness strain in composite laminates using carbon nanotube sensors”. Composites Science and Technology, 78: 41-47. [24] Baltopoulos A , Polydorides N, Vavouliotis A, Kostopoulos V and Pambaguian L “Sensing capabilities of multifunctional composite materials using carbon nanotubes” IAC-10.C2.9.2 Prague CZ 61st International Astronautical Congress, 2010. [25] Proper A, Zhang W, Bartolucci S, Oberai A and Koratkar N “In-Situ Detection of Impact Damage in Composites Using Carbon Nanotube Sensor Networks” Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Letters 1, 3–7, 2009. [26] Wicks S, Barber D, Raghavan A, Dunn CT, Daniel L, Kessler SS and Wardle B L “Health monitoring of carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid advanced composite for space applications” MIT, 2009. [27] Raghavan A, Kessler SS, Dunn CT, Barber D, Wicks S and Wardle B L “ Structural health monitoring using carbon nanotube (CNT) enhanced composites” Stanford University (Stanford, CA) 7th International Workshop on Structural Health Monitoring, Sep 9-11, 2009. [28] Naghashpour A. and Hoa S.V” A technique for real-time detection, location and quantification of damages in large polymer composite structures made of electrically non-conductive fibers and carbon nanotube networks” Nanotechnology, 24 (455502): 1-9, 2013.
Metrics
Usage Shares
Total Views
20 Page Views
Total Shares
0 Tweets
20
0 PDF Downloads
0
0 Facebook Shares
Total Usage
20