High Frame Rate X-Ray Detectors for Cineradiography and NDT

High frame-rate X-ray imaging is a valuable tool for nondestructive testing, as well as for ballistic impact studies, in-flight projectile imaging, studies of exploding ordnances, and characterizing other high-speed phenomena. High frame rate imaging is inherently light-starved due to the short exposures needed to avoid motion-blur. This imposes stringent requirements on the performance of the individual system components. Each of the system components including the X-ray source, X-ray to light converter, imaging optics and readout must be designed to maximize the signal to noise ratio, and improve image resolution and contrast. Here we report on several high-speed X-ray imaging systems that we have developed for various applications. These systems provide imaging areas ranging from 7 cm × 7 cm to 1 m × 1 m, and frame rates ranging from 1000 fps to 150,000 fps. Each of these systems includes a bright, low-afterglow scintillator screen coupled to a highresolution sensor through a custom-developed high-efficiency optical system resulting in a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of better than 5:1. Application-specific requirements and the associated imaging system design and performance will be discussed.

References
1 Nagarkar, V.V., S.V. Tipnis, V. Gaysinskiy, S.R. Miller, and I. Shestakova. High-speed digital radiography using structured CsI screens. Nucl. Inst. And Meth. In Phys. Res. B. 213, 476-480, 2004. 2 Nagarkar, V.V., Tipnis, S.V, Gupta, T.K., Miller, S.R., Gaysinskiy, V., Klugerman, M., Squillante, M.R., Entine, G., and Moses, W.W., High Speed x-ray Imaging Camera Using Structured CsI(Tl) Scintillator. IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 46, No. 3, 1999. 3 Vivek V. Nagarkar, Bipin Singh, Stuart Miller, Larry Campbell, Ron Bishel, and Rick Rushing, A modular high precision digital system for hypervelocity projectile performance measurements, Proc. SPIE 6978, 697808 2008. 4 Stuart Miller, Bipin Singh, Gerald Entine, Vivek V. Nagarkar, Larry Campbell, Ron Bishel, and Rick Rushing, Ultra High-Speed X-Ray Imaging of Hypervelocity Projectiles, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A, Volume 648, Supplement 1, 21 August 2011, Pages S293-S296, 2011.
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