Reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls are popular structural systems to resist lateral forces like wind and
earthquake. The cracking behavior of these critical structural elements is crucial due to its harmful effects on
structural performance such as serviceability and durability requirements. A technique that shows promise for
monitoring RC structures is acoustic emission (AE). This paper presents an experimental investigation of fracture
processes of two large-scale RC shear using AE parameters. In addition, a novel cluster analysis based on the
k-means is presented to automatically classify the two fundamental cracks modes (i.e., tensile and shear).
1. Aggelis, D.G. “Classification of cracking mode in concrete by acoustic emission parameters,” Mechanics
Research Communications, 38(3), 153-157. 2011.
2. Carpinteri, A., G. Lacidogna, G. Niccolini and S. Puzzi. “Critical defect size distributions in concrete structures
detected by the acoustic emission technique,” Meccanica, 43(3), 349-363. 2007.
3. Colombo, I.S., I.G. Main and M.C. Forde. “Assessing Damage of Reinforced Concrete Beam Using b-value
Analysis of Acoustic Emission Signals,” ASCE Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, 2003, 15(3), 280-286.
4. Farhidzadeh, A., S. Salamone, B. Luna and A. Whittaker. “Acoustic Emission Monitoring of a Reinforced
Concrete Shear Wall by b-value based Outlier Analysis,” Structural Health Monitoring–An International
Journal, under review. 2012a.
5. Farhidzadeh, A., E. Dehghan-Niri, S. Salamone, B. Luna and A. Whittaker. “Crack Propagation Monitoring
in a Reinforced Concrete Shear Wall by Acoustic Emission,” ASCE Journal of Structural Engineering, under
6. Grosse, C.U. and M. Ohtsu, “Acoustic Emission Testing – Basics for Research Applications in Civil
Engineering,” Berlin & Heidelberg, Germany, Springer Verlag. 2008.
7. Gutenberg, B. and C.F. Richter. “Seismicity of the earth and associated phenomena,” Frequency and Energy of
Earthquakes. Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 17-19. 1949.
8. Kurz, J.H. “Stress Drop and Stress Redistribution in Concrete Quantified Over Time by the b-value Analysis,”
Structural Health Monitoring, 5(1), 69-81. 2006.
9. Lin, H.C., L.L. Wang and S.N. Yang. “Automatic determination of the spread parameter in Gaussian
smoothing,” Pattern Recognition Letters, 17(12), 1247-1252. 1996.
10. Likas, A., N. Vlassis and J. Verbeek. “The global k-means clustering algorithm,” Pattern Recognition, 36(2),
11. Ohno, K. and M. Ohtsu. “Crack classification in concrete based on acoustic emission.” Construction and
Building Materials, Elsevier Ltd, 24(12), 2339-2346. 2010.
12. Rocks, J.F. “Large Scale Testing of Low aspect Ratio Reinforced Concrete Walls” M.Sc. Thesis, Department of
Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, University at Buffalo, NY. 2012.
13. Shiotani, T., S. Yuyama, Z.W. Li and M. Ohtsu. “Application of AE improved b-value to quantitative evaluation
of fracture process in concrete materials,” Journal of Acoustic Emission, 19, 118-133. 2001.