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New Procedures and Materials for Improving Protection of Archaeological Areas

This paper explains the role of nondestructive testing (NDT) in the protection of archaeological sites, as well as research activity and a pilot project in Sardinia, an island region of Italy. Microclimate, surface temperature and sun irradiation, as well as wind direction and speed, were monitored for two years by means of infrared thermography, psychrometry and probes to determine the requirements for a new shelter. In addition, several technical aspects were analyzed, highlighting how traditional covering solutions can often contribute to damage instead of offering protection. To overcome the limits of typical protective building systems, the project for new shelters needed to combine the requirements for preservation and new issues for use. Some of the requirements for preservation included compatibility and reversibility of new materials, as well as protection from environmental aggression. The new issues included flexibility, feasibility, low maintenance and easy deconstruction to allow reuse of the shelter in different locations and/or seasons. This paper describes the testing of two multilayered, textile-based prototypes that were created as an alternative solution to the provisional shelter. Sun irradiation was also measured in order to evaluate the behavior of innovative textile materials compared with traditional ones. The ultimate goal was to renovate the design process by covering archaeological sites in a more environmentally conscious way and without destruction, starting with the evaluated behavior of temporary shelters, and applying these new procedures and techniques in a more widespread variety of seasonal and permanent covering systems.

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