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Selection of Ultrasonic Transducer Focal and Water Path Lengths for Immersion Pulse Echo Testing of Cylinders

Interference may be caused by the signal produced by the second return of the initial pulse striking, and being reflected from, the surface of the material to be inspected. If this signal occurs before a signal return from a target at any depth in the material, it precludes the proper search for signals beyond the point where the interfering signal occurs. The paper shows how to select a transducer focal length, and the water path length to be employed, to avoid such potential interference.

Beck, K. H., “Ultrasonic Transducer Focusing for Inspection of Cylindrical Material,” Materials Evaluation, Vol. 49, No. 7, July 1991, pp. 875 – 882.
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