High-Speed Nondestructive Testing Methods for Mapping Voids, Debonding, Delaminations, Moisture and Other Defects Behind or Within Tunnel Linings

This paper reviews and evaluates different high-speed nondestructive testing methods for tunnel inspection. Nondestructive testing techniques considered in this research are ground-coupled and air-coupled ground penetrating radar (GPR), digital photogrammetry, concrete surface resistivity testing, ultrasound, impulse response, impact-echo, laser scanning, percometer dielectric probe technique, and thermography. Furthermore, structural health monitoring techniques such as corrosion sensors, accelerometers, strain gages, and displacement transducers are considered that allow continuous damage detection.

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