Fundamental to our experience with bonds is the tap test that so many use in their daily lives. In this Back to Basics, the authors review for the physics of how the tap test works, how technology can improve its capabilities for NDT and how it measures up against other techniques.
Adams, R.D., A.M. Allen and P. Cawley, “Nondestructive Inspection of
Composite Structures by Low Velocity Impact,” Review of Progress in
Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 5B, D.O. Thompson and D.E.
Chimenti, eds., New York, Plenum Press, 1986, pp. 1253–1258.
Cawley, P. and R.D. Adams, “Testing of Structures by Impact,” US Patent
No. 4,542,639, 1985.
Georgeson, G.E., S. Lea and J. Hansen, “Electronic Tap Hammer for
Composite Damage Assessment,” Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 2945, 1996,
Georgeson, G.E., J.M. Hansen, J.R. Kollgaard, S.W. Lea and J.R. Bopp,
“Damage Detection Device and Method,” US Patent No. 6,748,791,
Hsu, D.K., D.J. Barnard, J.J. Peters and V. Dayal, “Physical Basis of Tap
Test as a Quantitative Imaging Tool for Composite Structures on Aircraft,”
Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, Vol. 19B,
D.O. Thompson and D.E. Chimenti, eds., Melville, New York, AIP, 2000,
Hsu, D.K., D.J. Barnard, J.J. Peters and N.A. Hudelson, “Nondestructive
Inspection and the Display of Inspection Results,” US Patent No.
Mitsuhashi, K., C. Jyomuta, F. Oka and H. Nishikawa, “Method and Apparatus
for Impact-Type Inspection of Structures,” US Patent No.
Pfund, B., “Portable Test Hammer Apparatus,” US Patent No. 5,686,652,
Roach, D.P. and K.A. Rackow, “Improving In-Service Inspection of
Composite Structures: It’s a Game of CATT and MAUS,” FAA/NASA/DOD
Conference on Aging Aircraft, September 2003.
Wu, H. and M. Siegel, “Correlation of Accelerometer and Microphone
Data in the Coin-Tap Test,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and
Measurement, Vol. 49, 2000, pp. 493–497.